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Fictive Representation of Sexuality Essay | English …
bio and resume Masters of literary essays religion Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Skowhegan, ME. The Royal College of contest Art, Exchange Program, London, England. Bachelors of Fine Arts, Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO. Solo and Two-Person Exhibitions and Performances: (Upcoming) Rachel Frank: Vessels , (Solo) Thomas Hunter Projects, Hunter College, Curated by literary, Ellie Krakow, New York, NY. How To A College Essay Powerpoint. Rachel Frank: Past Future Tense , (Solo) SPRING/BREAK Art Show, Curated by Jacob Rhodes, New York, NY.
Rewilding Stuyvesant Cove Park (Performance), Solar One, Stuyvesant Cove Park, New York, NY. Rewilding Manhattan (Performance), The Select Fair (Presented by TSA and Franklin Furnace Archive), New York, NY. Sleep of literary essays sexuality religion Reason (Performance), The Marran Theater, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA. Rewilding Platte Clove (Performance), Various locations in The Catskill Mountains, NY. Bed on the Floor (Collaboration with Matt Bollinger), Zurcher Studio, New York, NY. Sleep of ryan Reason, (Performance), HERE, New York, NY. Masks and sexuality religion, Mirrors (Solo), The Women’s Studio Workshop, Rosendale, NY. Sleep of Reason (Performance), The Bushwick Starr, Brooklyn, NY. Sleep of Reason (Performance), Vaudeville Park, Brooklyn, NY. Ryan Contest. Black Pool (Solo), Mariboe Gallery, Peddie School, Hightstown, NJ. Recent Work (Solo), The Fahrenheit Gallery, Kansas City, MO.
Rapt, The Fahrenheit Gallery, Kansas City, MO. Awards and literary sexuality, Honors: (Upcoming) Museum of Contemporary Art Tucson, Artist-in Residence, Tucson, AZ. Platte Clove Cabin, Catskill Center, Artist-in-Residence, Elka Park, NY. Hunter College, Artist-in-Residence, Ceramics Department, New York, NY. Coursework. The Museum of Arts and Design, Artist Studio Program (Summer), New York, NY. Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Voices of the Wilderness Artist-in-Residence Program, Innoko NWR and literary, Wilderness, Alaska.
Platte Clove Cabin, Catskill Center, Artist-in-Residence, Elka Park, NY. Yaddo, Artist-in-Residence, Saratoga Springs, NY. BRIC Media Fellowship, Brooklyn, NY. Franklin Furnace Archive, Inc., Grant Recipient, Brooklyn, NY. Resume Legal. The Women’s Studio Workshop, Bookmaking Residency, Rosendale, NY. Essays. The Puffin Foundation, Grant Recipient, Teaneck, NJ. Coursework Form. The Rema Hort Mann Foundation, Grant Nomination, New York, NY. The Pollock-Krasner Foundation, Inc., Grant Recipient, New York, NY. Literary Essays. The Sculpture Space, Artist-in-Residence, Utica, NY. Artist Alliance Inc., Studio Grant Recipient, New York, NY. The Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation, Grant Recipient, Quebec, Canada.
Marie Walsh Sharpe Foundation, Studio Grant Recipient, New York, NY. International Sculpture Center, Outstanding Student Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award, Hamilton, NJ. University of Pennsylvania Skowhegan Matching Fellowship, Philadelphia, PA. University of Pennsylvania, Juror's Choice Award, Fox Gallery, Philadelphia, PA. Robert Engman Award, University of powerpoint Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Selected Group Exhibitions: Deep Time Rewilding (Performance collaboration with Robert Wilson), Fly into literary sexuality, the Sun: 24th Annual Watermill Center Summer Benefit, Curated by coursework form, Noah Khoshbin and Ivan Cheng, The Watermill Center, Water Mill, NY. Contemporary Landscape, Czong Institute for Contemporary Art (CICA Museum), Gimpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Beads Thread, Las Vegas City Hall Chambers Gallery, Las Vegas, NV. BRIC Biennial, Volume II: Bed Stuy and Crown Heights , Curated by literary essays sexuality, Elizabeth Ferrer and Jenny Gerow, BRIC House, Brooklyn, NY. Monsters in America , Curated by jcq lost coursework, Richard Saja, The International Crytozoology Museum, Portland, ME.
Creative Climate Awards , The Human Impacts Institute, New York, NY. Monsters in America , Curated by essays, Richard Saja, One Mile Gallery, Kingston, NY. Field Studies , Curated by Andrew Prayzner and engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, Naomi Reis, Tiger Strikes Asteroid, Brooklyn, NY. Stages , Curated by Matt Bollinger, Zurcher Studio, New York, NY. Common Threads , Curated by Brent Auxier, Danese/Corey, New York, NY. Feelers, Curated by Susan Metrican, Boston Center for literary religion, the Arts, Mills Gallery, Boston, MA. How To Application Powerpoint. Pop Up : Franklin Park Art Grove , (Performance, The Autobiographical Animal with Ian Deleon), Franklin Park Art Grove, Boston, MA. Essays Sexuality Religion. Stream: Chapter 2 (Helpless) ANTHROPOSCENIC (Film screening, Rockaway in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, collaboration with Brian Zegeer and Ben Lee), Curated by Jillian Brodie, Survivalist Cinema, South Windham, VT.
Franklin Park Art Grove Kick-Off Party , (Performance, The Autobiographical Animal with Ian Deleon), Samson Projects, Boston, MA. AIR Exhibition , The Catskill Erpf Center, Arkville, NY. New Short Film Festival, (Film screening, I will make you ), Jackson Library, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC. SkowheganPERFORMS , (Performance, Rewilding Socrates Sculpture Park ), Socrates Sculpture Park, Long Island City, NY. Fabrica Utopia Festival, (Film screening, The Traveler ), Andros Island, Greece. Video Art Festival Miden (Film screening. The Traveler ), Kallitechniko Steki, Othonos Square, Kalamata, Greece. Breathless, Curated by literary religion, Kristin Sancken, House of the Nobleman, Rush Galley, New York, NY.
Works on how to a college application powerpoint, Paper; TSA Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. Signs of Life , Curated by essays sexuality, Richard Burroughs Charlotte Mouquin, Rush Corridor Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. At Land and Sea, (Film screening, Rockaway in jcq lost form, collaboration with Brian Zegeer and Ben Lee), Curated by Nick Shimkin, UnionDocs Center for Documentary Art, Brooklyn, NY. Essays Sexuality. In Search of…. , Curated by how to application, Dustin Dennis, Amanda Lechner Chris Ulivo, TSA Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. Pagan Holiday , Curated by literary essays, Jacob Rhodes, Field Projects, New York, NY. In Search of…. , Curated by Dustin Dennis, Amanda Lechner Chris Ulivo, Rhodes College, Memphis TN; The Art and Design Gallery. Coursework Form. In Search of…. Sexuality. , Curated by jcq lost, Dustin Dennis, Amanda Lechner Chris Ulivo, The University of literary essays sexuality religion Kansas, Lawrence, KS. The Shadow Side, Curated by engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, Josh Anderson, Peru State College, Peru, NE. Creative Nonfiction, Kunsthalle Galapagos, Brooklyn, NY. Literary. Drawings Related to Performance Works, 92YTRIBECA, New York, NY.
New Prints 2012/Winter, International Print Center New York, New York, NY. On Giving Back. Skowhegan PERFORMS, Socrates Sculpture Park, New York, NY. Chain Letter, Samson, Boston, MA. Essays Religion. Emerging Artists Exhibition, Curated by engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, Julian Zugazagoitia, The Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO. Literary Sexuality. Tompkins Projects West: Works on Paper , Dan Graham Project Space, Los Angeles, CA. Out of Bounds , Curated by Ryan Russo, Barrier Free Living, New York, NY. Sub Terrain, Curated by Andrew Thompson, WORK: Ann Arbor, University of legal Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Departure/Arrival, Curated by Jonah Criswell Maria Buszek, La Esquina, Kansas City, MO. Will It Happen? , Elga Wimmer Gallery, New York, NY.
Postcards from the religion, Edge, Metro Pictures, New York, NY. Dream Tigers, Curated by Brian Zegeer, Vaudeville Park, Brooklyn, NY. Solid Gold; Vox Populi, Philadelphia, PA. Works on Paper, Cuchifritos, New York, NY. Application Powerpoint. A Muzzle of Bees, Curated by essays, Thomas Brauer, 33 Bond Gallery, New York, NY. No New Tale to Tell, 31 Grand Gallery, New York, NY. On Giving Back. Working Space, Cuchifritos, New York, NY. This is Not the Future, Vox Populi, Philadelphia, PA. Our Dark Heroes, Secret Project Robot, Brooklyn, NY. MFA Biennial, The Delaware Center for literary essays religion, Contemporary Arts, Wilmington, DE. MFA Thesis Exhibition, The Ice Box Gallery, Philadelphia, PA.
Outstanding Student Achievement in jcq lost form, Contemporary Sculpture Exhibition , Grounds for Sculpture, Hamilton, NJ. BFA Thesis Exhibition, HR Block Art Space, Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO. The Stray Show, with The Fahrenheit Gallery, Kingsbury, Chicago, IL. National Society of Arts and Letters: Small Sculpture Exhibition, Opie Gallery, Leedy-Voulkos Arts Center, Kansas City, MO. Lectures, Classes, and sexuality, School Visits: (Upcoming) The Center for Craft, Creativity, and Design, Trans: Across, Beyond, Through , Panel Discussion, Asheville, NC. Museum of Arts and Design, MADmakers Workshop, New York, NY.
College of Staten Island, Visiting Artist Project Class (Soft Sculpture), Staten Island, NY. Write A College. Inner Fields, Rewilding: A Return , Discussion and listening event, Brooklyn, NY. Swale, Rewilding Talk, Brooklyn Bridge Park, Brooklyn, NY. Literary Religion. Galena City School, Visiting Artist for Workshops, Galena, AK. Hofstra University, Guest Juror and engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, Visiting Artist, Hempstead, NY. Sexuality. North American Drama Therapy Association, Conference Co-presenter, A Reflection on back, the Uses of Performance Art as Social Commentary , White Plains, NY. Franklin Grove Panel Discussion with Dr. Barbara Lewis, Empathetic Environments: Animals as Mentors, Masks, and Mirrors, Franklin Park, Wilderness Picnic Grove, Boston, MA. Lesley University, Visiting Artist/Workshops/ Performance, Cambridge, MA.
SUNY Purchase, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Purchase, NY. SUNY Purchase, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Purchase, NY. AICAD Kansas City Art Institute Summer Studio Intensive, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Brooklyn, NY. Pratt Institute, Professional Practice Lecturer, Brooklyn, NY. The Kansas City Art Institute, Visiting Artist/Panel Discussion, Kansas City, MO. Literary Religion. Pratt Institute, Professional Practice Lecturer in back, conjunction with NYFA, Brooklyn, NY. SUNY New Paltz, Visiting Artist/Professional Practice Workshop, New Paltz, NY. Literary Sexuality. The Kansas City Art Institute, Visiting Artist/Panel Discussion, Kansas City, MO. Resume Samples. Peddie School, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Hightstown, NJ. Stanford University, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Palo Alto, CA.
Rhode Island School of Art and literary essays religion, Design, Visiting Artist, Providence, RI. Rhode Island School of Art and Design, Visiting Artist, Providence, RI. Mayday! Mayday! Mayday! (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Skowhegan School of legal Painting Sculpture, New York, NY. Divisions (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Skowhegan School of Painting Sculpture, New York, NY.
Excavations , Field Projects, New York, NY. The Impossible, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Skowhegan School of Painting Sculpture, New York, NY. The Double, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), The Select Fair, New York, NY. Essays Sexuality Religion. This Might Not Be For Now, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Cabinet, Brooklyn, NY and how to application, Public Fiction, Los Angeles, CA. Liars, Actors, and Believers, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Cabinet, Brooklyn, NY. Sexuality. The Double, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Cabinet, Brooklyn NY and LAXART, Los Angeles, CA. Out of the Woods, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Regina Rex, Brooklyn, NY. Jcq Lost Form. Publications and literary, Press: • Schwarting, Jen, and Derek Stroup. Rewilding: Rachel Frank in Conversation with Jen Schwarting Field, Issue 1, 2017. Master Thesis. • Vartanian, Hrag.
The Messy, DIY Aesthetic of the essays sexuality religion, Spring/Break Art Show Hyperallergic , March 6, 2017. [LINK] • Blackard, Colleen. Essays Back. Art in the City Presents: A Curated View of literary religion SPRING/BREAK Art Show, 2017 HiConcept Magazine , March 2017. [LINK] • Lynch, Scott. Ryan. Inside Spring/Break, The Best Armory Arts Week Fair Inside A Times Square Office Building Gothamist , March 1, 2017. (Photos) [LINK] • Sutton, Benjamin. “Another favorite from @springbreakartshow” I Saw This Thing, March 5, 2017. (Blog posting) [LINK] • Duron, Maximiliano. A Tour of the 2017 Spring/Break Art Show ARTnews , March 3, 2017. (Photos) [LINK] • Frank, Rachel. Interview with Artist Carla Edwards, Arte Fuse, February 15, 2017. [LINK] • Mitter, Siddhartha. Essays Religion. At the BRIC Biennial, Dozens of on giving back Local Artists Shine a Light on literary sexuality religion, Brooklyn The Village Voice, November 23, 2016. [LINK] • The Sharpe-Walentas Studio Program, Artist to Artist, Volume 2 , New York, 2016. • BRIC Media Center, BRIC Biennial Volume II: Bed-Stuy/Crown Heights Edition, Exhibition catalogue. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. Brooklyn: 2016. • Danese/Corey. Common Threads, Exhibition catalogue.
New York: Danese/Corey, 2016. • Frank, Rachel, Ellie Krakow, and Sarah Madole. EXCAVATIONS: A Conversation on Fragments Field Projects, April 2016. Essays Religion. [LINK] • A.K., Atif, “EXCAVATIONS - Imagination Worth Digging” Arte Fuse, March 28, 2016. [LINK] • Rubin, Maxine Margo. Rewilding Manhattan: Interview with Rachel Frank, The Many Shades of Green , Brooklyn, NY, August 2015, Radio Interview [LINK] • WSI Administration, Signs of Life Wall Street International Magazine , November 26, 2013. [LINK] • Kohler, William Eckhardt. “Matt Bollinger at Zurcher Studio: The Road of Ashes” The Huffington Post, March 28, 2013. [LINK] • Hitchings, Jen. “In Search Of…Elegantly Mystical Work as TSA” The Bushwick Daily, March 4, 2013. [LINK] • Lechner, Amanda, and ryan essay contest, Dustin Dennis. In Search of…, Exhibition catalogue, November 11th - December 7th, 2012, The University of literary sexuality religion Kansas Art and Design Gallery, Lawrence, KS. • Frank, Rachel. Untitled. Ed. Paper Monument. Draw it with Your Eyes Closed: the Art of the Art Assignment. New York City: n+1 Foundation Inc., 2012: 18 [LINK] • Frank, Rachel.
Sleep of Reason. Emergency INDEX. Master Environmental Education. Ed. Gluzman, Yelena. Sexuality Religion. Brooklyn: Ugly Duckling Press, 2012: 71 [LINK] • Connell, Lee. Essays On Giving. “Rachel Frank: Drawing out the literary religion, Shadows” Women’s Studio Workshop, December 6, 2010. [LINK] • Frank, Rachel. Cheyney Ryan. Sleep of literary essays Reason. Rosendale: The Women’s Studio Workshop, 2010. • Sanders, Brad. Write Essay. “Sub-Terrain explores states of being at Work Gallery” The Michigan Daily, September 27, 2010. [LINK] • Tateishi, Stephen. “Comments on the Retreat into sexuality, Reality” Sleep of contest Reason: A Sculptural Performance (Brochure), March 2010, February 2011. • Lerner, Sarah. “Shocking Photos are Dramatically Interpreted at Vaudeville Park” TimeOut New York, March 24, 2010. • Purcell, Janet. “Inspirations of Young and Imaginative Artists on Display at essays sexuality Grounds for Sculpture” The Times , Friday, December 9, 2005. • Fallon, Roberta. “Schools’ Clout” The Philadelphia Weekly , May 18-24, 2005: 45. • “Outstanding Student Achievement in cheyney essay contest, Contemporary Sculpture Awards” Sculpture October 2005: 59. Sexuality Religion. • Ismael, Amelia. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. “Rachel Frank and literary sexuality, James Woodfill at the Fahrenheit Gallery” Review February 2005: 48. • Bembnister, Theresa; Kaufmann, Gina. “Rachel Frank: Art Capsule Review” The Pitch, Kansas City October 28, 2004. [LINK] • Trafton, Robin. “Soft Cloth Becomes a Harsh Reality” The Kansas City Star October 9, 2004: 10. • Buszek, Maria.
In Review Surface Design Journal Spring 2004: 48-49. Essays Back. • Doug Kubert, “Best Pairing of Artists, Best of literary essays religion Kansas City”, The Pitch, October 9, 2003. • Thorson, Alice. Absurd and Violent The Kansas City Star June 27, 2003: 27.
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Fictive Representation of Sexuality Essay | English …
Marie and Pierre Curie and religion the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Marie and Pierre Curie's pioneering research was again brought to mind when on April 20 1995, their bodies were taken from their place of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis burial at Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty dome of the Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to be accorded this mark of honour on her own merit. One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already rested there but in the capacity of religion wife of the chemist Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907). It was François Mitterrand who, before ending his fourteen-year-long presidency, took this initiative, as he said in order to finally respect the equality of master education women and men before the essays sexuality law and in reality (pour respecter enfin . l'égalité des femmes et des hommes dans le droit comme dans les faits). In point of fact - as the a college essay press pointed out - this initiative was symbolic three times over. Marie Curie was a woman, she was an immigrant and essays religion she had to a high degree helped increase the prestige of France in the scientific world. At the end of the 19th century, a number of discoveries were made in physics which paved the way for the breakthrough of modern physics and cheyney essay contest led to the revolutionary technical development that is continually changing our daily lives. Around 1886, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the sexuality religion existence of radio waves.
It is said that Hertz only cheyney contest smiled incredulously when anyone predicted that his waves would one day be sent round the literary essays religion earth. Hertz died in 1894 at on giving the early age of 37. In September 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent the essays religion first radio signal over essays on giving back, a distance of 1.5 km. In 1901 he spanned the Atlantic. Hertz did not live long enough to experience the far-reaching positive effects of essays sexuality religion his great discovery, nor of course did he have to see it abused in bad television programs. It is hard to on giving predict the literary religion consequences of new discoveries in physics.
On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at the University of Würzburg, discovered a new kind of radiation which he called X-rays. It could in time be identified as the short-wave, high frequency counterpart of Hertz's waves. The ability of the radiation to pass through opaque material that was impenetrable to ordinary light, naturally created a great sensation. Röntgen himself wrote to how to a college a friend that initially, he told no one except his wife about literary what he was doing. People would say, Röntgen is out of his mind. On January 1, 1896, he mailed his first announcement of the on giving discovery to his colleagues. Essays Sexuality Religion. . und nun ging der Teufel los (and now the Devil was let loose) he wrote. His discovery very soon made an impact on engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, practical medicine.
In physics it led to a chain of new and sensational findings. When Henri Becquerel was exposing salts of religion uranium to sunlight to study whether the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis new radiation could have a connection with luminescence, he found out by chance - thanks to a few days of cloudy weather - that another new type of radiation was being spontaneously emanated without the salts of uranium having to be illuminated - a radiation that could pass through metal foil and darken a photographic plate. The two researchers who were to play a major role in the continued study of this new radiation were Marie and Pierre Curie. Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in Warsaw in 1867. Sexuality Religion. Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in the importance of education. Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father.
She had a brilliant aptitude for study and cheyney ryan a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for sexuality religion, women in Poland. Marie dreamed of being able to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, but this was beyond the means of her family. To solve the problem, Marie and essays on giving her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to work as a governess and essays sexuality religion help her sister with the ryan money she managed to save so that Bronya could study medicine at essays religion the Sorbonne. When Bronya had taken her degree she, in essays on giving, her turn, would contribute to the cost of Marie's studies. So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to literary essays sexuality religion Paris to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of Polish origin, and it was at Bronya's urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the step of leaving for Paris. Literary Sexuality. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French. But her keen interest in studying and her joy at being at jcq lost coursework the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. To save herself a two-hours journey, she rented a little attic in the Quartier Latin.
There the cold was so intense that at literary sexuality religion night she had to pile on everything she had in jcq lost form, the way of clothing so as to sexuality religion be able to sleep. But as compensation for all her privations she had total freedom to be able to devote herself wholly to her studies. It was like a new world opened to me, the samples world of sexuality religion science, which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty, she writes. And it was France's leading mathematicians and physicists whom she was able to go to hear, people with names we now encounter in the history of science: Marcel Brillouin, Paul Painlevé, Gabriel Lippmann, and Paul Appell. After two years, when she took her degree in physics in 1893, she headed the list of candidates and, in the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics.
Her goal was to take a teacher's diploma and then to jcq lost coursework form return to Poland. Marie Sklodowska, before she left for Paris. Now, however, there occurred an event that was to be of decisive importance in her life. Literary Essays Sexuality. She met Pierre Curie. He was 35 years, eight years older, and an internationally known physicist, but an outsider in the French scientific community - a serious idealist and resume dreamer whose greatest wish was to be able to devote his life to scientific work. He was completely indifferent to outward distinctions and religion a career. He earned a living as the head of a laboratory at the School of essays back Industrial Physics and Chemistry where engineers were trained and he lived for essays sexuality religion, his research into contest, crystals and into the magnetic properties of literary essays religion bodies at different temperatures.
He had not attended one of the French elite schools but had been taught by his father, who was a physician, and by resume legal a private teacher. He passed his baccalaureat at the early age of 16 and at literary essays sexuality religion 21, with his brother Jacques, he had discovered piezoelectricity, which means that a difference in electrical potential is seen when mechanical stresses are applied on certain crystals, including quartz. Such crystals are now used in microphones, electronic apparatus and clocks. Marie, too, was an write essay, idealist; though outwardly shy and retiring, she was in reality energetic and single-minded. Pierre and Marie immediately discovered an literary, intellectual affinity, which was very soon transformed into engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, deeper feelings. Literary Essays Sexuality Religion. In July 1895, they were married at how to write a college application essay the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived. Sexuality. They were given money as a wedding present which they used to buy a bicycle for each of them, and long, sometimes adventurous, cycle rides became their way of relaxing. Master. Their life was otherwise quietly monotonous, a life filled with work and study.
Persuaded by his father and by Marie, Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis in 1895. It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the connection between temperature and magnetism that is now known as Curie's Law. In 1896, Marie passed her teacher's diploma, coming first in literary, her group. Their daughter Irène was born in essays on giving back, September 1897. Pierre had managed to arrange that Marie should be allowed to work in the school's laboratory, and in 1897, she concluded a number of investigations into essays, the magnetic properties of steel on write a college, behalf of an industrial association. Deciding after a time to go on doing research, Marie looked around for a subject for a doctoral thesis. Becquerel's discovery had not aroused very much attention.
When, just a day or so after his discovery, he informed the literary sexuality Monday meeting of l'Académie des Sciences , his colleagues listened politely, then went on to the next item on the agenda. It was Röntgen's discovery and the possibilities it provided that were the coursework form focus of the interest and enthusiasm of researchers. Becquerel himself made certain important observations, for instance that gases through which the rays passed become able to conduct electricity, but he was soon to leave this field. Religion. Marie decided to make a systematic investigation of the mysterious uranium rays. She had an excellent aid at her disposal - an electrometer for master thesis environmental education, the measurement of weak electrical currents, which was constructed by Pierre and his brother, and was based on the piezoelectric effect. Results were not long in coming.
Just after a few days, Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium. Literary Essays. Her continued systematic studies of the various chemical compounds gave the surprising result that the strength of the radiation did not depend on the compound that was being studied. It depended only on the amount of uranium or thorium. Chemical compounds of the same element generally have very different chemical and physical properties: one uranium compound is a dark powder, another is a transparent yellow crystal, but what was decisive for the radiation they gave off was only the amount of uranium they contained. Marie drew the conclusion that the form ability to radiate did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule, it must be linked to the interior of the atom itself. This discovery was absolutely revolutionary. From a conceptual point of view it is her most important contribution to religion the development of physics. She now went through the resume whole periodic system. Her findings were that only uranium and thorium gave off this radiation. Marie's next idea, seemingly simple but brilliant, was to study the literary sexuality religion natural ores that contain uranium and thorium.
She obtained samples from geological museums and found that of these ores, pitchblende was four to five times more active than was motivated by a college the amount of uranium. It was her hypothesis that a new element that was considerably more active than uranium was present in small amounts in essays religion, the ore. Marie and Pierre - A Fruitful Collaboration. Fascinating new vistas were opening up. Pierre gave up his research into crystals and symmetry in nature which he was deeply involved in and joined Marie in her project.
They found that the strong activity came with the fractions containing bismuth or barium. When Marie continued her analysis of the ryan contest bismuth fractions, she found that every time she managed to take away an essays sexuality, amount of bismuth, a residue with greater activity was left. At the end of June 1898, they had a substance that was about 300 times more strongly active than uranium. In the resume samples work they published in essays sexuality religion, July 1898, they write, We thus believe that the substance that we have extracted from pitchblende contains a metal never known before, akin to bismuth in its analytic properties. If the existence of this new metal is confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the name of the country of origin of one of us. It was also in this work that they used the term radioactivity for the first time. After another few months of work, the ryan Curies informed the l'Académie des Sciences , on December 26, 1898, that they had demonstrated strong grounds for having come upon an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the name of radium for the new element. In order to be certain of showing that it was a matter of new elements, the Curies would have to produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and preferably isolate them. Literary Sexuality Religion. To do so, the Curies would need tons of the costly pitchblende.
However, it was known that at the Joachimsthal mine in Bohemia large slag-heaps had been left in the surrounding forests. Marie considered that radium ought to master environmental education be left in the residue. A sample was sent to them from Bohemia and the slag was found to essays religion be even more active than the original mineral. Several tons of pitchblende was later put at their disposal through the good offices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was now that there began the on giving back heroic epoque in their life that has become legendary.
At this stage they needed more room, and the principal of the school where Pierre worked once again came to literary their aid. They could use a large shed which was not occupied. Legal Samples. There the very laborious work of separation and analysis began. Marie carried out the chemical separations, Pierre undertook the measurements after each successive step. Physically it was heavy work for literary essays, Marie. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. She processed 20 kilos of raw material at literary religion a time. On Giving Back. First of all she had to clear away pine needles and any perceptible debris, then she had to undertake the work of sexuality religion separation. Sometimes I had to spend a whole day stirring a boiling mass with a heavy iron rod nearly as big as myself. I would be broken with fatigue at day's end, she writes.
In a preface to Pierre Curie's collected works, Marie describes the shed as having a bituminous floor, and a glass roof which provided incomplete protection against the rain, and where it was like a hothouse in the summer, draughty and cold in the winter; yet it was in that shed that they spent the best and happiest years of their lives. There they could devote themselves to work the livelong day. Sometimes they could not do their processing outdoors, so the noxious gases had to essays on giving back be let out through the open windows. The only literary essays sexuality religion furniture were old, worn pine tables where Marie worked with her costly radium fractions. Since they did not have any shelter in which to store their precious products the latter were arranged on tables and boards. Marie could remember the joy they felt when they came into the shed at night, seeing from all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the legal samples products of essays sexuality their work. The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to master environmental education us today since small amounts are emitted from certain kinds of building materials. Wilhelm Ostwald, the highly respected German chemist, who was one of the sexuality first to legal samples realize the importance of the Curies' research, traveled from Berlin to Paris to see how they worked.
Neither Pierre nor Marie was at home. He wrote: At my earnest request, I was shown the laboratory where radium had been discovered shortly before . It was a cross between a stable and a potato shed, and if I had not seen the worktable and sexuality religion items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke. Marie Presents Her Doctoral Thesis. At the same time as the Curies were engaged in their arduous work, each of them had their teaching duties. From 1900 Marie had had a part-time teaching post at the École Normale Supérieur de Sèvres for girls. After thousands of crystallizations, Marie finally - from several tons of the original material - isolated one decigram of almost pure radium chloride and master thesis environmental education had determined radium's atomic weight as 225. Literary Sexuality. She presented the application essay powerpoint findings of this work in her doctoral thesis on literary sexuality religion, June 25, 1903. Of the three members of the coursework examination committee, two were to receive the Nobel Prize a few years later: Lippmann, her former teacher, in 1908 for physics, and literary essays sexuality Moissan, in 1906 for chemistry. The committee expressed the opinion that the cheyney findings represented the literary sexuality religion greatest scientific contribution ever made in a doctoral thesis. A little celebration in Marie's honour, was arranged in the evening by a research colleague, Paul Langevin.
The guests included Jean Perrin, a prominent professor at the Sorbonne, and Ernest Rutherford, who was then working in Canada but temporarily in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, Paris and anxious to meet Marie Curie. He had good reason. His study of the deflection of radiation in magnetic fields had not met with success until he had been sent a strongly radioactive preparation by the Curies. By that time he was already famous and was soon to be considered as the greatest experimental physicist of the day. It was a warmish evening and the group went out into the garden. Pierre had prepared an effective finale to the day. When they had all sat down, he drew from his waistcoat pocket a little tube, partly coated with zinc sulfide, which contained a quantity of radium salt in solution. Suddenly the tube became luminous, lighting up the essays sexuality darkness, and the group stared at the display in wonder, quietly and solemnly.
But in master environmental education, the light from the tube, Rutherford saw that Pierre's fingers were scarred and inflamed and literary essays religion that he was finding it hard to hold the cheyney essay tube. A week earlier Marie and Pierre had been invited to the Royal Institution in London where Pierre gave a lecture. Before the crowded auditorium he showed how radium rapidly affected photographic plates wrapped in paper, how the substance gave off heat; in the semi-darkness he demonstrated the spectacular light effect. He described the literary essays sexuality medical tests he had tried out on himself. He had wrapped a sample of radium salts in a thin rubber covering and bound it to his arm for master thesis environmental education, ten hours, then had studied the wound, which resembled a burn, day by day. Literary Religion. After 52 days a permanent grey scar remained. In that connection Pierre mentioned the possibility of radium being able to be used in the treatment of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis cancer. But Pierre's scarred hands shook so that once he happened to spill a little of the essays religion costly preparation. Fifty years afterwards the presence of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis radioactivity was discovered on literary essays sexuality religion, the premises and certain surfaces had to coursework be cleaned. In actual fact Pierre was ill. His legs shook so that at times he found it hard to essays sexuality stand upright.
He was in much pain. He consulted a doctor who diagnosed neurasthenia and prescribed strychnine. And the skin on Marie's fingers was cracked and scarred. Both of them constantly suffered from fatigue. They evidently had no idea that radiation could have a detrimental effect on their general state of health. Pierre, who liked to say that radium had a million times stronger radioactivity than uranium, often carried a sample in his waistcoat pocket to show his friends. Marie liked to have a little radium salt by her bed that shone in the darkness. The papers they left behind them give off pronounced radioactivity.
If today at the Bibliothèque Nationale you want to how to write powerpoint consult the three black notebooks in which their work from December 1897 and the three following years is recorded, you have to sign a certificate that you do so at your own risk. People will have to do this for a long time to essays sexuality religion come. In fact it takes 1,620 years before the activity of radium is engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, reduced to a half. Rutherford was just as unsuspecting in regard to religion the hazards as were the Curies. Coursework. When it turned out that one of his colleagues who had worked with radioactive substances for several months was able to discharge an electroscope by exhaling, Rutherford expressed his delight. Essays. This confirmed his theory of the existence of airborne emanations. In view of the form potential for the use of literary essays sexuality religion radium in medicine, factories began to be built in the USA for its large-scale production. The question came up of write a college whether or not Marie and Pierre should apply for a patent for the production process. They were both against doing so.
Pure research should be carried out for its own sake and must not become mixed up with industry's profit motive. Researchers should be disinterested and literary essays sexuality religion make their findings available to everyone. Marie and jcq lost Pierre were generous in supplying their fellow researchers, Rutherford included, with the preparations they had so laboriously produced. They furnished industry with descriptions of the production process. In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the literary religion Nobel Prize in Physics. The citation was, in recognition of the legal samples extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. Literary. Henri Becquerel was awarded the other half for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity.
In a letter to the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Pierre explains that neither of them is able to on giving come to Stockholm to receive the prize. They could not get away because of their teaching obligations. He adds, Mme Curie has been ill this summer and is not yet completely recovered. That was certainly true but his own health was no better. Not until June 1905 did they go to Stockholm, where Pierre gave a Nobel lecture.
At the prize award ceremony, the president of the Swedish Academy referred in his speech to the old proverb: union gives strength. He went on to quote from the Book of Genesis, It is not good that the literary sexuality religion man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Although the Nobel Prize alleviated their financial worries, the Curies now suddenly found themselves the focus of the essays on giving interest of the public and the press. Their seemingly romantic story, their labours in intolerable conditions, the remarkable new element which could disintegrate and give off heat from what was apparently an literary sexuality, inexhaustible source, all these things made the reports into fairy-tales. At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of pitchblende in order to extract a tiny amount of essays on giving back a magical element. Even Le Figaro, otherwise a sensible newspaper, began with Once upon a time . They were pursued by essays sexuality religion journalists from the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis whole world - a situation they could not deal with. Marie wrote, The shattering of our voluntary isolation was a cause of real suffering for us and had all the effects of disaster. Pierre wrote in July 1905, A whole year has passed since I was able to do any work . evidently I have not found the way of defending us against frittering away our time, and yet it is very necessary. It is a question of life or death from the intellectual point of view.
But as Elisabeth Crawford emphasizes in sexuality, her book The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution , from the latter's viewpoint, the awarding of the legal 1903 Prize for Physics was masterly. Formerly, only the Prize for Literature and the Peace Prize had obtained wide press coverage; the Prizes for scientific subjects had been considered all too esoteric to be able to interest the literary essays general public. The commotion centered on the award of the Prize to the Curies, especially Marie Curie, aroused once and for all the curiosity of the press and how to a college essay the public. The work of researchers was exciting, their findings fascinating. The health of both Marie and Pierre Curie gave rise to essays concern. Their friends tried to make them work less. All their symptoms were ascribed to the drafty shed and to overexertion. Their dearest wish was to have a new laboratory but no such laboratory was in how to application, prospect. Literary Sexuality. When Paul Appell, the dean of the resume samples faculty of essays religion sciences, appealed to resume samples Pierre to let his name be put forward as a recipient for the prestigious Legion of Honor on essays sexuality religion, July 14,1903, Pierre replied, . I do not feel the slightest need of being decorated, but I am in the greatest need of a laboratory. Jcq Lost Form. Although Pierre was given a chair at the Sorbonne in 1904 with the promise of a laboratory, as late as 1906 it had still not begun to be built. Pierre was given access to some rooms in a building used for study by young medical students.
Pierre Curie never obtained a real laboratory. On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie was run over by a horse-drawn wagon near the Pont Neuf in Paris and literary killed. Now Marie was left alone with two daughters, Irène aged 9 and Ève aged 2. Shock broke her down totally to begin with. But even now she could draw on the toughness and perseverance that were fundamental aspects of her character. Ryan Essay. When she was offered a pension, she refused it: I am 38 and able to support myself, was her answer.
She was appointed to succeed Pierre as the head of the laboratory, being undoubtedly most suitable, and to be responsible for his teaching duties. She thus became the first woman ever appointed to essays sexuality religion teach at the Sorbonne. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. After some months, in November 1906, she gave her first lecture. Essays Sexuality. The large amphitheater was packed. Master Thesis Environmental Education. As well as students, her audience included people from far and near, journalists and photographers were in attendance. Many people had expected something unusual to occur. Perhaps some manifestation of the historic occasion. When Marie entered, thin, pale and tense, she was met by an ovation.
However the expectations of something other than a clear and factual lecture on physics were not fulfilled. But Marie's personality, her aura of simplicity and sexuality religion competence made a great impression. Irène was now 9 years old. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. Marie had definite ideas about the literary sexuality upbringing and essays on giving back education of children that she now wanted to put into practice. Her circle of friends consisted of a small group of professors with children of school age.
Marie organized a private school with the parents themselves acting as teachers. A group of some ten children were accordingly taught only by literary sexuality prominent professors: Jean Perrin, Paul Langevin, Édouard Chavannes, a professor of Chinese, Henri Mouton from the Pasteur Institute, a sculptor was engaged for modeling and drawing. Marie took the view that scientific subjects should be taught at an early age but not according to a too rigid curriculum. Back. It was important for children to be able to literary sexuality religion develop freely. Games and physical activities took up much of the time. Quite a lot of time was taken for travel, too, for the children had to travel to the homes of their teachers, to how to a college application powerpoint Marie at Sceaux or to Langevin's lessons in literary, one of the Paris suburbs.
The little group became a kind of school for the elite with a great emphasis on science. The children involved say that they have happy memories of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis that time. For Irène it was in those years that the sexuality foundation of her development into a researcher was laid. The educational experiment lasted two years. Subsequently the jcq lost coursework form pupils had to prepare for their forthcoming baccalauréat exam and to follow the traditional educational programs. In 1908 Marie, as the first woman ever, was appointed to become a professor at the Sorbonne. She went on to produce several decigrams of very pure radium chloride before finally, in collaboration with André Debierne, she was able to isolate radium in metallic form. André Debierne, who began as a laboratory assistant, became her faithful collaborator until her death and then succeeded her as head of the laboratory. Literary Essays Sexuality Religion. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in master environmental education, Chemistry.
The citation by literary sexuality the Nobel Committee was, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by resume samples the isolation of literary religion radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. Now that the archives have been made available to the public, it is possible to study in detail the events surrounding the awarding of the two Prizes, in 1903 and 1911. In a letter in 1903, several members of the l'Académie des Sciences , including Henri Poincaré and resume samples Gaston Darboux, had nominated Becquerel and Pierre Curie for the Prize in Physics. Marie's name was not mentioned. This caused Gösta Mittag-Leffler, a professor of mathematics at literary religion Stockholm University College, to write to Pierre Curie. That letter has never survived but Pierre Curie's answer, dated August 6, 1903, has been preserved. Legal Samples. He wrote, If it is true that one is seriously thinking about me (for the Prize), I very much wish to be considered together with Madame Curie with respect to our research on literary essays sexuality religion, radioactive bodies. Drawing attention to the role she played in the discovery of legal samples radium and polonium, he added, Do you not think that it would be more satisfying from the essays sexuality religion artistic point of view, if we were to be associated in this manner? (plus joli d'un point de vue artistique). Some biographers have questioned whether Marie deserved the Prize for engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, Chemistry in 1911.
They have claimed that the discoveries of radium and polonium were part of the reason for the Prize in 1903, even though this was not stated explicitly. Essays Religion. Marie was said to have been awarded the Prize again for the same discovery, the award possibly being an expression of master education sympathy for sexuality, reasons that will be mentioned below. Actually, however, the application powerpoint citation for literary essays sexuality religion, the Prize in 1903 was worded deliberately with a view to a future Prize in how to powerpoint, Chemistry. Chemists considered that the discovery and essays religion isolation of radium was the greatest event in chemistry since the discovery of oxygen. That for the first time in history it could be shown that an element could be transmuted into engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, another element, revolutionized chemistry and signified a new epoch. Despite the second Nobel Prize and an invitation to essays the first Solvay Conference with the world's leading physicists, including Einstein, Poincaré and Planck, 1911 became a dark year in Marie's life. In two smear campaigns she was to how to write application essay powerpoint experience the inconstancy of the French press. The first was started on sexuality religion, 16 November 1910, when, by coursework an article in Le Figaro , it became known that she was willing to be nominated for election to l'Académie des Sciences . Examples of essays sexuality religion factors other than merit deciding an election did exist, but Marie herself and her eminent research colleagues seemed to have considered that with her exceptionally brilliant scientific merits, her election was self-evident. Notwithstanding, it turned out that it was not merit that was decisive. The dark underlying currents of anti-Semitism, prejudice against master thesis environmental women, xenophobia and even anti-science attitudes that existed in French society came welling up to the surface.
Normally the election was of no interest to the press. The most rabid paper was the ultra-nationalistic and anti-Semitic L'Action Française , which was led by Léon Daudet, the son of the writer Alphonse Daudet. Dreyfus had got redress for his wrongs in 1906 and had been decorated with the Legion of Honour, but in the eyes of the groups who had been against him during his trial, he was still guilty, was still the Jewish traitor. The pro-Dreyfus groups who had supported his cause were suspect and the scientists who were supporting Marie were among them. Jokes in literary essays sexuality religion, bad taste alternated with outrageous accusations.
It was said that in her career, Pierre's research had given her a free ride. She came from Poland, though admittedly she was formally a Catholic but her name Sklodowska indicated that she might be of how to write application essay powerpoint Jewish origin, and essays sexuality so on. A week before the election, an opposing candidate, Édouard Branly, was launched. The vote on January 23, 1911 was taken in the presence of thesis education journalists, photographers and hordes of the curious. The election took place in a tumultuous atmosphere. In the first round Marie lost by religion one vote, in the second by two.
In all, fifty-eight votes were cast. A Nobel Prize in jcq lost, 1903 and literary essays sexuality religion support from prominent researchers such as Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré, Paul Appell and the permanent secretary of the Académie , Gaston Darboux, were not sufficient to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis make the Académie open its doors. This event attracted international attention and indignation. It deeply wounded both Marie and indeed Édouard Branly, too, himself a well-merited researcher. However, Marie's tribulations were not at an end. When, at the beginning of November 1911, Marie went to Belgium, being invited with the sexuality religion world's most eminent physicists to legal attend the literary essays first Solvay Conference, she received a message that a new campaign had started in the press.
Now it was a matter of her private life and master environmental education her relations with her colleague Paul Langevin, who had also been invited to the conference. He had had marital problems for several years and had moved from his suburban home to a small apartment in Paris. Marie was depicted as the reason. Essays Religion. Both were described in slanderous terms. The scandal developed dramatically. Marie stands up in essays, her own defence and managed to force an apology from the newspaper Le Temps . The same day she received word from Stockholm that she had been awarded the Nobel Prize in literary essays, Chemistry.
However, the very newspapers that made her a legend when she received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, now completely ignored the fact that she had been awarded the Prize in Chemistry or merely reported it in a few words on legal samples, an inside page. The Langevin scandal escalated into a serious affair that shook the university world in Paris and the French government at the highest level. Literary Essays. Madame Langevin was preparing legal action to obtain custody of the four children. With a burglary in Langevin's apartment certain letters were stolen and delivered to the press. Léon Daudet made the whole thing into a new Dreyfus affair.
Day after day Marie had to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis run the gauntlet in the newspapers: an essays, alien, a Polish woman, a researcher supported by our French scientists, had come and stolen an honest French woman's husband. Daudet quoted Fouquier-Tinville's notorious words that during the Revolution had sent the chemist Lavoisier to the guillotine: The Republic does not need any scientists. Marie's friends immediately backed her up. Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré and Émile Borel appealed to the publishers of the newspapers. Henri Poincaré's cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a senior lawyer who was to become President of France in a few years time, was engaged as advisor. But the scandal kept up its impetus with headlines on the first pages such as Madame Curie, can she still remain a professor at the Sorbonne? With her children Marie stayed at Sceaux where she was practically a prisoner in her own home. Her friends feared that she would collapse. The drama culminated on the morning of 23 November when extracts from the essays letters were published in the newspaper L'Oeuvre . There was no proof of the accusations made against Marie and the authenticity of the literary letters could be questioned but in the heated atmosphere there were few who thought clearly.
In her book Souvenirs et rencontres , Marguerite Borel gives a dramatic description of what happened. Émile Borel was extremely indignant and acted quickly. Marie had to be fetched from Sceaux and live with them until the storm was over. Jcq Lost Form. Marguerite and essays André Debierne went out to Sceaux where they found a hostile and powerpoint angry crowd gathered outside Marie's home. Someone shouted, Go home to Poland. A stone hit the house.
Having managed to persuade Marie to go with them, they guided her, holding Ève by the hand, through the literary essays sexuality crowd. Marie sat stiff and deathly pale throughout their journey. Marguerite wanted to take her hand, but did not venture to do so. On their return, Marie and Ève were installed in two rooms in the Borels' home. Form. Henriette Perrin looks after Irène. But the Borels' home was owned by the École Normale Supérieure and Émile Borel was called up to the Minister of Education (Théodore Steeg, le ministre de l'Instruction publique) who informed him that he had no right to let Marie Curie stay in his home. Literary Sexuality Religion. It would cast a shadow on the École Normale . If Borel persisted in keeping his guest, he would be dismissed.
So be it then, I shall persist, was Borel's answer. For Marguerite Borel's part, she had to endure a stormy battle with her father, Paul Appell, then dean of the coursework form faculty at the Sorbonne. He was furious that the Borels have gotten mixed up in the matter. Literary Religion. He revealed that with several other influential people he was planning an resume legal, interview with Marie in order to request her to leave France: her situation in Paris was impossible. I have done everything for her, I have supported her candidature to the Académie , but I cannot hold back the flood now engulfing her. Marguerite replied, If you give in to that idiotic nationalist movement and insist that Marie should leave France, you will never see me any more. Appell, who was in the process of essays putting on his shoes, threw one of them to hit the door - but the interview with Marie did not take place.
Langevin who had been repeatedly insulted, then felt forced to challenge Gustave Téry, the editor of the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis newspaper that printed the letters, to a duel. Literary Essays. Fighting a duel was a usual way of obtaining satisfaction in France at that time, although scarcely in master thesis environmental education, academic circles. Literary Sexuality. Newspaper publishers who had come up against each other in this dispute had already fought duels. Swords were generally used and a duellist was usually content with inflicting a thorough scratch on his opponent for the duel to be considered decided. But fatal accidents did in fact occur. Langevin found it hard to find seconds, but managed to master environmental persuade Paul Painlevé, a mathematician and later Prime Minister, and the director of the sexuality School of Physics and Chemistry.
The duel, with pistols at a distance of form 25 meters, was to take place on the morning of November 25. Painlevé, not being used to the routines, surprised everyone present by beginning to count in a loud voice unusually quickly: one, two, three. Téry did not raise his pistol. Langevin, who had first raised his, then lowered it. No shot was fired.
The journalists wrote about the silence and about the pigeons quietly feeding on sexuality, the field. In the midst of all its gravity, the duel had turned into a farce. However, the publication of the jcq lost coursework letters and the duel were too much for those responsible at the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Literary Essays Sexuality Religion. Marie received a letter from a member, Svante Arrhenius, in which he said that the duel had given the impression that the published correspondence had not been falsified. He asked her to cable that she would not be coming to application essay powerpoint the prize award ceremony and to write him a letter to the effect that she did not want to accept the Prize until the Langevin court proceedings had shown that the accusations against her were absolutely without foundation. Literary Sexuality. Of those most closely affected, the person who remained level-headed despite the enormous strain of the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis critical situation was in fact Marie herself. Literary Religion. In a well-formulated and matter-of-fact reply, she pointed out that she had been awarded the Prize for jcq lost coursework, her discovery of radium and polonium, and sexuality that she could not accept the principle that appreciation of the value of scientific work should be influenced by slander concerning a researcher's private life. On December 6, Langevin wrote a long letter to Svante Arrhenius, whom he had met previously. He described the whole situation, explained what circles were behind the smear campaign. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. He appealed to the Nobel Committee not to let it be influenced by essays sexuality religion a campaign which was fundamentally unjust. Nor, in fact, was it so influenced.
Marie gathered all her strength and gave her Nobel lecture on December 11 in Stockholm. The lecture should be read in the light of what she had gone through. She made clear by her choice of words what were unequivocally her contributions in the collaboration with Pierre. She spoke of the field of research which I have called radioactivity and my hypothesis that radioactivity is an atomic property, but without detracting from his contributions. She declared that she also regarded this Prize as a tribute to Pierre Curie. However, this enormous effort completely drained her of write application essay all her strength. She sank into a depressed state.
On December 29, she was taken to a hospital whose location was kept secret for her protection. When she had recovered to some extent, she traveled to religion England, where a friend, the physicist Hertha Ayrton, looked after her and saw that the press was kept away. A whole year passed before she could work as she had done before. In her book, Marguerite Borel quotes Jean Perrin's words, 'But for the five of master thesis us who stood up for Marie Curie against a whole world when a landslide of filth engulfed her, Marie would have returned to Poland and we would have been marked by eternal shame.' The five were Jean and sexuality Henriette Perrin, Émile and Marguerite Borel and resume André Debierne. Legal proceedings were never taken. Sexuality Religion. Langevin and his wife reached a settlement on 9 December without Marie's name being mentioned. We shall never know with any certainty what was the nature of the relationship between Marie Curie and engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis Paul Langevin. It is sexuality, referred to by Paul Langevin's son, André Langevin, in his biography of his father, which was published in 1971. He writes, Is it not rather natural that friendship and mutual admiration several years after Pierre's death could develop step by step into resume samples, a passion and a relationship? It can be added as a footnote that Paul Langevin's grandson, Michel (now deceased), and Marie's granddaughter, Hélène, later married. Sexuality Religion. Hélène Langevin-Joliot is a nuclear physicist and has made a close study of Marie and Pierre Curie's notebooks so as to obtain a picture of how their collaboration functioned.
Marie had opened up a completely new field of research: radioactivity. Various aspects of on giving it were being studied all over literary religion, the world. In Uppsala Daniel Strömholm, professor of chemistry, and how to a college essay The Svedberg, then associate professor, investigated the chemistry of the radioactive elements. In 1909 they were close to the discovery of isotopes. However it was the British physicist Frederick Soddy who in the following year, finally clarified the concept of isotopes. Marie's laboratory became the Mecca for radium research. Religion. Eva Ramstedt, who took a doctorate in physics in Uppsala in 1910, studied with Marie Curie in 1910-11 and was later associate professor in radiology at Stockholm University College in 1915-32. Essays. The Norwegian chemist Ellen Gleditsch worked with Marie Curie in 1907-1912. When, in 1914, Marie was in the process of beginning to lead one of the religion departments in the Radium Institute established jointly by essay contest the University of Paris and the Pasteur Institute, the First World War broke out. Marie placed her two daughters, Irène aged 17 and Ève aged 10, in literary, safety in Brittany. She herself took a train to Bordeaux, a train overloaded with people leaving Paris for a safer refuge.
But Marie had a different reason for on giving, her journey. She had with her a heavy, 20-kg lead container in which she had placed her valuable radium. Once in Bordeaux the essays sexuality other passengers rushed away to their various destinations. She remained standing there with her heavy bag which she did not have the strength to carry without assistance. Some official finally helped her find a room where she slept with her heavy bag by her bed. The next day, having had the bag taken to a bank vault, she took a train back to Paris. It was now crowded to bursting point with soldiers. Throughout the war she was engaged intensively in equipping more than 20 vans that acted as mobile field hospitals and about 200 fixed installations with X-ray apparatus. Marie driving one of the radiology cars in 1917. Marie Sklodowska Curie Museum.
She trained young women in simple X-ray technology, she herself drove one of the vans and took an active part in locating metal splinters. Sometimes she found she had to give the doctors lessons in elementary geometry. Irène, when 18, became involved, and in the primitive conditions both of essay contest them were exposed to literary essays sexuality religion large doses of radiation. After the Peace Treaty in 1918, her Radium Institute, which had been completed in 1914, could now be opened. It became France's most internationally celebrated research institute in the inter-war years. Even so, as her French biographer Françoise Giroud points out, the French state did not do much in the way of master environmental education supporting her. In the USA radium was manufactured industrially but at literary essays sexuality a price which Marie could not afford. She had to devote a lot of time to fund-raising for her Institute.
She also became deeply involved when she had become a member of the legal Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations and served as its vice-president for a time. She frequently took part in sexuality, its meetings in thesis environmental, Geneva, where she also met the essays sexuality religion Swedish delegate, Anna Wicksell. Marie regularly refused all those who wanted to interview her. However, a prominent American female journalist, Marie Maloney, known as Missy, who for a long time had admired Marie, managed to jcq lost meet her. This meeting became of great importance to them both. Literary Essays Religion. Marie told Missy that researchers in the USA had some 50 grams of radium at their disposal. And in France, then? asked Missy. Write A College Essay. My laboratory has scarcely more than one gram, was Marie's answer. But you ought to have all the resources in the world to essays continue with your research. Someone must see to that, Missy said. But who? was Marie's reply in a resigned tone.
The women of essay powerpoint America, promised Missy. Missy, like Marie herself, had an enormous strength and strong inner stamina under a frail exterior. She now arranged one of the largest and literary essays most successful research-funding campaigns the a college essay world has seen. First of all she got the New York papers to promise not to print a word on the Langevin affair and - so as to literary essays feel safe - unbelievably enough managed to take over all their material on the Langevin affair. Due to the press, Marie became enormously popular in America, and everyone seemed to want to meet her - the great Madame Curie. Missy had to struggle hard to get Marie to accept a program for her visit on a par with the campaign. Finally, she had to a college essay turn to Paul Appell, now the university chancellor, to essays religion persuade Marie. In spite of her diffidence and essay distaste for publicity, Marie agreed to go to America to receive the gift - a single gram of radium - from the hand of President Warren Harding. I understand that it will be of the greatest value for literary sexuality religion, my Institute, she wrote to Missy. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis. When all this became known in France, the literary paper Je sais tout arranged a gala performance at jcq lost the Paris Opera. It was attended by the most prominent personalities in sexuality, France, including Aristide Briand, then Foreign Minister, who was later, in 1926, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
Jean Perrin made a speech about Marie's contribution and the promises for the future that her discoveries gave. The great Sarah Bernhardt read an how to write a college application essay, Ode to sexuality religion Madame Curie with allusions to her as the sister of Prometheus. After being dragged through the how to write a college essay mud ten years before, she had become a modern Jeanne d'Arc. Missy Maloney, Irène, Marie and Ève Curie in the USA. Photo kindly provided by William Brown Maloney Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, USA. Missy had undertaken that everything would be arranged to cause Marie the least possible effort. In spite of this Marie had to attend innumerable receptions and do a round of American universities. Outwardly the trip was one great triumphal procession. She became the recipient of some twenty distinctions in the form of honorary doctorates, medals and membership in academies. Essays Sexuality. Great crowds paid homage to her.
But for Marie herself, this was torment. Where possible, she had her two daughters represent her. Marie and master environmental Missy became close friends. The inexhaustible Missy organized further collections for one gram of literary religion radium for an institute which Marie had helped found in Warsaw. Marie's second journey to America ended only a few days before the great stock exchange crash in 1929. In the last ten years of her life, Marie had the joy of seeing her daughter Irène and cheyney her son-in-law Frédéric Joliot do successful research in the laboratory. She lived to see their discovery of artificial radioactivity, but not to hear that they had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it in 1935. Marie Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. It is worth mentioning that the new discoveries at essays sexuality the end of the nineteenth century became of importance also for the breakthrough of modern art. X-ray photography focused art on the invisible. The human body became dissolved in a shimmering mist.
Wassily Kandinsky, one of the pioneers of abstract painting, wrote about radioactivity in his autobiographical notes from 1901-13. He claimed that in his soul the decay of the master environmental atom was synonymous with the religion decay of the whole world. The thickest walls had suddenly collapsed. Everything had become uncertain, unsteady and fluid. He would not have been surprised if a stone had been pulverized in the air before him and become invisible. For the physicists of Marie Curie's day, the new discoveries were no less revolutionary. Although admittedly the world did not decay, what nevertheless did was the classical, deterministic view of the write a college essay powerpoint world. Radioactive decay, that heat is given off from an invisible and apparently inexhaustible source, that radioactive elements are transformed into new elements just as in the ancient dreams of alchemists of the possibility of making gold, all these things contravened the most entrenched principles of classical physics. For radioactivity to literary essays religion be understood, the development of quantum mechanics was required. But it should be noted that the birth of quantum mechanics was not initiated by engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis the study of radioactivity but by Max Planck's study of radiation from a black body in 1900.
It was an old field that was not the object of the same interest and publicity as the new spectacular discoveries. It was not until 1928, more than a quarter of a century later, that the type of radioactivity that is called alpha-decay obtained its theoretical explanation. It is an example of the tunnel effect in literary essays religion, quantum mechanics. Much has changed in jcq lost form, the conditions under which researchers work since Marie and Pierre Curie worked in a drafty shed and refused to consider taking out a patent as being incompatible with their view of the role of researchers; a patent would nevertheless have facilitated their research and spared their health. But in essays, one respect, the cheyney essay situation remains unchanged.
Nature holds on just as hard to its really profound secrets, and it is just as difficult to predict where the answers to fundamental questions are to be found. Appell, Paul (1855-1930), mathematician. Arrhenius, Svante (1859-1927), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903. Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English physicist. Becquerel, Henri (1852-1908), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903.
Borel, Émile (1871-1956), mathematician. Borel, Marguerite, author, married to Émile Borel. Branly, Édouard (1844-1940), physicist. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932), eminent French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize 1926. Brillouin, Marcel (1854-1948), theoretical physicist. Darboux, Gaston (1842-1917), mathematician.
Daudet, Léon (1867-1942), editor of L'Action Française. Debierne, André (1874-1949), Marie Curie's colleague for many years. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Giroud, Françoise (1916- ), author, former minister. Gleditsch, Ellen (1879-1968), chemist.
Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1894), physicist. Langevin, Paul (1872-1946), physicist. Lippmann, Gabriel (1845-1921), Nobel Prize in Physics 1908. Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937), Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (1846-1927), mathematician. Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906. Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Painlevé, Paul (1863-1933), mathematician. Perrin, Jean (1870-1942) Nobel Prize in Physics 1926. Planck, Max (1858-1947), Nobel Prize in Physics 1918. Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912), mathematician, philosopher.
Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934), lawyer (president 1913-1920) Ramstedt, Eva (1879-1974), physicist. Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908. Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921. Strömholm, Daniel (1871-1961), chemist, professor at Uppsala University. Svedberg, The (1884-1971), Nobel Prize in essays, Chemistry 1926. Bensuade-Vincent, Bernadette, Marie Curie, femme de science et de légende , Reveu du Palais de la découverte, Vol. 16. n 157 avril 1988, 15-30. Muzeum Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej.
(Polskie Towarzystwo Chemiczne) 00-227 Warsawa, ul. Freta 16. tel: 48-22-31 80 92. fax: 48-22-31 13 04. Contact person: Malgorzata Sobieszczak-Marciniak. * Originally delivered as a lecture at the Royal Swedish Academy of samples Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on literary sexuality, February 28, 1996. Translation from Swedish to English by Nancy Marshall-Lundén.
First published 1 December 1996. MLA style: Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. On Giving. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/curie/
On 27 November 1895 Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris. Try to save some patients and learn about human blood types! Discover the 2012 awarded research on literary essays religion, stem cells and cell signalling.
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5 Mistakes to Avoid When Selling Your Small Business. Everyday small business owners (retailers) make drastic mistakes when selling their business and lose thousands of literary essays religion, dollars in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, the process. All their hard work and long-term investment goes down the drain. As entrepreneurs, they had once dreamed of owning their own business and building it to success. They then plan to reap the literary essays sexuality religion rewards in the form of on giving back, a successful business sale. Sounds like a great plan! But, making the sale is not as easy as it may appear.
As an entrepreneur, I have built and sold six businesses including a car rental company, two mini-storage facilities, and essays sexuality three retail stores. Now as an resume legal, international professional speaker and business consultant, I help other small business owners achieve this same success. Here are my five tips to help you avoid business sale pitfalls, disappointment and lost money. Mistake 1: Not Planning Ahead or Waiting too Long to Sell. Waiting too long, or not planning in literary essays sexuality religion, advance, can cause many business owners to essays on giving, miss their window of opportunity. It takes an average of two to essays, four years to sell a small business. Therefore, long-term planning is key to any successful business sale. Legal Samples? By keeping updated records, a detailed business history and literary essays religion sales portfolio on hand at all times, it will make your planning pay off. You just never know when that perfect buyer may walk into your business and make you an offer you just can’t refuse.
Succession planning is a major misstep by retailers. How To Write A College Application Powerpoint? Even if you do not have a successor who is a relative, you are still thinking like a succession planner. The person #34;succeeding#34; you needs to sexuality religion, be set up for essay, success. If they see you have been planing and considering this for sexuality, quite some time and essay that it#39;s not a quick #34;I#39;ve had enough#34; sale, your price will be much higher. Add to that the confidence the buyer will have in a retail store purchase if they see there was a strategy for the sale and that it#39;s not driven our of desperation. Mistake 2: Not Finding the Right Person to literary, Represent Your Business. Finding the right broker and/or consultant to help you sell your business is crucial to your success. Often business owners go with the first person they meet just to list their business and get the process going. This can cost you time and how to a college application powerpoint money in the long run. Sexuality Religion? Within a few months, you may see no results and have to go on the search all over again. Form? Taking time to interview many brokers and looking at a realistic outcome of literary sexuality religion, what is expected will get you started in the right direction.
I signed up with the first broker I spoke with. He seemed like the perfect person to on giving, sell my business. After all, he had a background in literary essays, retail and that was my industry, he was friendly and best of all he came up with a BIG price tag. Unfortunately, it was too good to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, be true because he was asking too much. Sexuality? By raising the price he got me to samples, sign the contract but never made the sexuality sale. After six wasted months without even a lead, I finally decided to move on. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis? Learning from my mistake, I interviewed 12 more brokers before signing another contract. The new broker had a more realistic approach and started to religion, bring me leads within the first month.
Mistake 3: Thinking You Don’t Have to Promote or Market Yourself. Resume? Thinking a broker will do all the work in promoting your sale can be deadly. You are the best promoter for your business. Who knows your business better than you? No one is literary sexuality, more motivated, passionate and knowledgeable about your business than you! A broker may be getting you some activity, but you continue to promote as well. After becoming frustrated that leads were not developing, I realized that I had to be a promoter of my own business sale.
But, the trick was to promote a sale without getting it out in my community, my customer base and my employees. How was I going to do that? Where do I find people that would be interested in essays back, purchasing my type of business? Learn how to literary essays sexuality religion, start your own business or side hustle, and discover strategies to attract customers and essays back pump up your profits. After I brainstormed for ideas, I discovered a way to do this. Realizing that my sales associates might make the first contact with someone that was interested in religion, opening a retail store — I went to the source.
Again I asked myself the question, #34;What makes sales people take action?#34; Money! So I sat down and wrote a letter explaining why and how I wanted to sell my successful business. I offered a bonus to my sales associates to write a college application powerpoint, send me a buyer. Instantly the phone started ringing and more leads came in. Literary Essays Religion? Within a couple of weeks, I had created such hype that I had three different buyers working on buying the business at the same time.
Retail is a tough business — much tougher than people realize. And honestly, the number one reason someone is selling a retail store is that it is failing, not because it is successful. The more planning you put into coursework, your sale, the better the price you will be able to obtain. Religion? Keep in mind that they prospective buyer will be very suspect of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, your reason for selling Have your plan and strategy in literary sexuality religion, place and this will eliminate any fears. Cheyney Ryan Essay? Just like you started your business with a strong, sell it with a strong plan as well. Mistake 4: Asking too Much or too Little for the Business.
Setting a very high or unrealistic price tag on literary sexuality religion a business can lead to a dead end street. Expecting to get top dollar for engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, a business that generates little or no profit is simply using bad business sense. Consider your industry, similar businesses, the economy and your marketplace when pricing your business to sell. On the other hand, a business that does not generate profits may do well with a going-out-of-business sale. This type of sale can generate instant cash flow and quick turnover. Too many business owners that have not turned a profit, or have cash flow problems, miss this wonderful opportunity. Some reasons they miss out is due to lost energy and/or motivation or because they may not want to admit defeat or failure. Remember it is business — don’t worry about literary essays, taking it personally. Look for the most valuable opportunities for your business. Another mistake is to price the business too low. Often business owners will price their business low because they are burned out, suffer from an illness or did not get good advice.
Do your homework first! Listen to brokers and legal consultants. Do research about other business sales before jumping in with both feet. Mistake 5: Selling to the Wrong Person. Taking the first offer may not be a wise choice. Sexuality Religion? This may not necessarily be your BEST offer. Resume? Selling your business for top dollar with little or no money down along with an extended contract may lead you to lose it all. Business sales often go bad after the new owner takes over. The new owner may lack business experience, have a closed mind or be a poor leader. The list goes on and on.
A successful business owner makes it looks easy, but change that mix and disaster may strike. When this happens, the new owner ends up going out of business and leaves the previous owner holding an empty bag. It saddens me to see a business fail after years of success due to this lack of literary essays religion, business sale judgment. Evaluate your options and make the back best selection for the long term. Ask yourself, is this the best person to buy and run my business? Or, can they quickly connect with my customer base and learn how to essays sexuality religion, market effectively?
When the how to business sale goes as planned, it creates a tremendous opportunity for both business owners and the success continues. Debbie Allen is the author of Confessions of religion, Shameless Self Promoters and Skyrocketing Sales. She has been featured in Entrepreneur, Selling Power and Sales Marketing Excellence.
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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to literary religion give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.
The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the literary essays religion only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by thesis education private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the essays stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by how to write a college application essay multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.
Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at essays which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). How To Write Essay Powerpoint! 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to sexuality produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the how to write application essay factors of production, and they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the sexuality religion business and takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.
5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to coursework whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of essays sexuality, production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by how to write a college essay powerpoint the marginal worker falls to essays religion be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.
A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of master thesis education, production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the literary firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is cheyney ryan contest provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of assembly-line production in his car factories in the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of literary sexuality religion, buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of jcq lost coursework form, its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. Literary Essays Sexuality! ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.
There is no sense in doing this, given that an master thesis education, infinite number of literary essays sexuality religion, customers are willing to buy the good at the higher price of P1. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis! 14You can understand this question by literary essays religion referring back to education the answer to question 3. Essays! As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to essays scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of literary sexuality, diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into resume samples, the production process and the output of goods or services that results. Literary! The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. Essays Religion! The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic ‘law’, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. This means that the resume samples only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by literary religion adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to on giving back the marginal worker begins to fall.
This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of literary sexuality religion, production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the how to write a college application powerpoint relationship between the law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on essays religion, the next page. The upper panel of the resume legal diagram shows the marginal and literary essays sexuality average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at resume samples point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the religion marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.
And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the on giving two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. Literary Sexuality Religion! [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis the economic long run, it is usual to sexuality assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in legal samples the diagram below. Religion! However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is ‘issue based’. The mark scheme sets out all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for application powerpoint, the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the essays sexuality question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.
02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . Essays Back! mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in literary essays sexuality religion terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of ryan essay, production fall.
This means that large firms, particularly in literary essays sexuality religion manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the master environmental education smaller level of religion, output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.
Since heat loss depends on the area of the container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of literary essays sexuality, scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of literary essays religion, operation means that profits will be larger for a college essay, large firms than for small firms. Literary Essays Religion! However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. Essays Back! A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from essays religion, monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and samples general consumer exploitation.
The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. Literary Essays Religion! On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of literary, production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of scale are possible, the motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in master environmental education order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.
By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at sexuality religion the top of master thesis environmental, level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).
The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and literary essays religion evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of samples, | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to essays |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of resume, | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Religion! Although analysis of economies and how to a college essay diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of literary essays, economic theory. Hence the cheyney ryan contest answer is placed at essays religion the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the literary sexuality religion possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and literary essays sexuality religion availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of essays back, output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to sexuality religion revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.
Normal profit is the level of profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the on giving back price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by literary firms will be greater than the cost of making the coursework last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Literary! Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.
For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in write application all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. Essays! In this case the on giving back firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firm’s business strategy aims to sexuality religion attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. Write A College Application Essay! This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the religion assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.
Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to resume legal the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the literary religion six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to literary essays influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. Powerpoint! e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Essays Sexuality! Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for a college powerpoint, its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and essays market supply in the market as a whole, which is engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the literary essays sexuality religion firm is a passive price-taker.
Condition (iii) of the conditions of education, perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at essays sexuality the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at coursework the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and literary religion sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in coursework form panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to literary essays sexuality the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in resume legal panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the literary essays profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the essays total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of form, perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.
In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the literary market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to on giving back S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the literary market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to environmental education the left and essays religion the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.
This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for resume legal samples, developing the analysis required of a good answer to sexuality religion this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis! The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.
A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the religion output produced from the available inputs or factors of on giving back, production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on religion, the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.
This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to how to powerpoint be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Essays Religion! Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of resume samples, static efficiency, i. Literary Essays! e. Master Thesis Environmental! efficiency measured at literary essays sexuality a particular point in time. Jcq Lost Coursework Form! By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over essays, time. Legal Samples! Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the literary introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.
The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in how to a college application powerpoint the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at literary essays sexuality religion the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of scale.
Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the write a college powerpoint market is too small to allow both full economies of essays sexuality religion, scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of cheyney essay contest, firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the essays sexuality pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis produce the allocatively efficient level of essays sexuality, output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. Resume Legal! P = MSC and literary essays sexuality religion not P = MPC.
This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. How To A College! Nor will the whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for essays sexuality, level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the resume legal answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to literary essays religion support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of cheyney ryan essay, | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on literary religion, efficiency criteria and not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. Sexuality! The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of jcq lost coursework, market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.
Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and essays sexuality Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. Master Environmental Education! The industries produce a service that is essays sexuality religion delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of coursework, distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to literary sexuality incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.
Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the application essay form of literary essays religion, high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. How To Write Application Essay! Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.
Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an literary essays, informal agreement between firms in a market to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. Sexuality Religion! This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Jcq Lost Form! Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by literary essays imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.
If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and master environmental education development to religion invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in how to write powerpoint higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the literary essays cartel to operate inefficiently. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to master thesis environmental education purchase cement for sexuality religion, investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on religion, other goods and services. How To Write A College Essay Powerpoint! Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Literary! Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.
7In the jcq lost original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.
Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. Essays Sexuality! However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the how to write a college essay powerpoint behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to literary sexuality government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. Thesis Environmental! The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to sexuality religion pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.
Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. A College Application Essay Powerpoint! To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to religion force smaller rivals out samples of the literary sexuality religion market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.
This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at different prices. How To Essay! Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the essays sexuality religion price of on giving, a ticket at literary different times of the day to send price signals and create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the resume legal samples increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in literary sexuality religion firms’ interest to indulge in this form of pricing.
10The gamer’s consumer surplus is how to write a college ? 0, being the difference between the literary essays religion maximum price he was prepared to pay and the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to write a college application essay powerpoint accept and the actual price paid. Literary Essays Sexuality! 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the resume legal samples legal protection given to literary essays sexuality religion an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. Resume Samples! This legal protection allows firms to sexuality religion make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.
Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and environmental education risk bankruptcy if the literary essays religion new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Jcq Lost Form! Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and sexuality monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of form, 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SAS’s market share in literary essays Norway is about 43% while its market share in form Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the essays context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for write a college essay powerpoint, identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.
Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the literary essays sexuality religion answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for resume legal, identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to literary sexuality religion reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. Cheyney Ryan! In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.
As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. It does this by restricting the number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of religion, output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis price discrimination, charging higher prices to religion customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and resume legal samples presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the literary essays religion market.
A predatory price is how to write application essay powerpoint set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the literary sexuality religion market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and master take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the literary essays sexuality religion second part of the question divides into two parts. How To Write Application Essay Powerpoint! The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is religion attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the legal samples candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to essays sexuality develop an answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by back firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.
In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. Literary Essays Sexuality! In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to essays on giving stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and religion enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in essay dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.
For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against essays sexuality religion the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to master thesis education be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by essays EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the thesis Office of literary, Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to a court of engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Literary Essays Religion! Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. How To Write Essay Powerpoint! Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.
Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of literary essays sexuality, millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at contest cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and literary sexuality religion not competing with firms from education, other EU countries, would not attract the literary religion attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on sexuality religion, firms found to essays back be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by sexuality the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about €800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined €104 million, Air France-KLM €340 million and Cargolux Airlines €79.
9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the cartel ‘blowing the whistle’ on powerpoint, other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. Literary Essays Sexuality! National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is legal placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in essays sexuality level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of how to write a college essay, joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on essays sexuality, these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to write a college application each other. This is sexuality religion good evaluation.
Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Resume Samples! Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is essays sexuality necessary for profits to be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the on giving ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in literary essays religion the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in resume samples the labour market. Literary Sexuality! Similarly, firms, which are the jcq lost form source of supply in the goods market, are the source of literary essays, demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.
As a result of role reversal, the ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the jcq lost coursework form National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. Essays Religion! 19, the main rate for engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the sexuality religion 16–17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. Essays Sexuality Religion! ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the on giving back taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.
Personal wealth is the literary sexuality religion stock, or historical accumulation, of how to application essay powerpoint, everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to essays sexuality religion or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the legal samples links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the literary essays wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to master environmental their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from religion, a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the on giving wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and literary essays sexuality any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the legal rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Literary Essays Sexuality Religion! Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of ryan contest, those in work.
Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. Sexuality Religion! This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and essays on giving back higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the essays consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis! This has kept the literary sexuality religion real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the jcq lost coursework real earnings of those in literary essays religion work have continued to resume samples rise. Literary Sexuality Religion! Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of jcq lost form, income have especially suffered.
The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the sexuality unemployed generally fell below increases in master environmental the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and religion a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of cheyney, much of the literary UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to master thesis receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of literary essays religion, widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in cheyney contest the private sector. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Literary Essays Sexuality Religion! Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.
There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in jcq lost both real and nominal terms. Essays Sexuality Religion! This answer scores 14 out how to write application of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to essays sexuality religion the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is sound but a little thin.
It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of application essay powerpoint, income is essays religion paid in ryan contest tax. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to literary religion use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for essays, example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and literary religion transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and essays sexuality a policy of transfers of write a college application, income to the less well-off, in literary essays religion a deliberate attempt — with some success — to reduce inequalities in the distribution of coursework form, income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.
The reason for literary, this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is coursework form fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to religion pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an a college, adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the literary incentives to work harder, to how to a college essay powerpoint be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.
Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the economy’s rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Literary Sexuality Religion! Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and essays enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to engage in essays sexuality entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and how to application essay powerpoint the level at which they are available creates a situation in essays sexuality religion which the poor rationally choose unemployment and engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis state benefits in preference to essays low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.
Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and education many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to essays sexuality pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis, benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Essays! Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.
Needless to legal samples say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the sexuality pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in on giving the free market are necessary. One of literary essays, these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as ‘income in kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the cheyney ryan contest disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. It is literary essays sexuality religion important to read the essay question carefully.
This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Sexuality Religion! Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and sexuality religion has been placed at mid-level 4. Environmental! To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of literary, essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. Samples! These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of literary sexuality, a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and essays rejectable. Literary Sexuality Religion! A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.
There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into essay, pure public goods and non-pure public goods. National defence and literary police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. On Giving Back! However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of sexuality religion, road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.
For public goods, the optimal level of jcq lost coursework, consumption occurs when they are available free of literary sexuality, charge. Master Thesis! 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to literary sexuality religion consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the how to write application long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to literary sexuality consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. ’ 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of literary sexuality religion, society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the master thesis environmental market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.
This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in literary religion the marketplace; hence the how to write term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an literary essays, anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. Cheyney Essay Contest! As a result of the literary religion principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. Ryan Essay! EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is essays religion strictly national, relating only to the UK, the education EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to sexuality religion Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in master thesis many countries, including the sexuality religion UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in jcq lost form the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.
Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Religion! Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to write a college powerpoint a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. Sexuality! With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in form which the collapse of one bank leads to sexuality religion a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in the economy, which may in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and literary sexuality the creation of recessionary conditions.
Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. When the banking system froze in 2007–08, firms found they were unable to essay contest borrow from literary essays sexuality, banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of business. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis! Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the literary essays religion ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the legal Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.
An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. Religion! 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the back distribution of essays sexuality religion, income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and literary essays sexuality national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is ryan essay closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work — at least in terms of sexuality religion, officially declared employment.
The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is application powerpoint defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of literary sexuality, carbon pollutants in 1990. Samples! This is forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in literary sexuality religion 2050, an increase of essays, 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the literary essays sexuality religion carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is essays on giving expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to literary essays rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. Cheyney Ryan Essay Contest! 7 billion tonnes.
OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. Sexuality Religion! 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is essays sexuality religion vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is cheyney essay provided to one person it is provided to all.
It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of a ‘bad’, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the literary essays religion ‘bad’ in a public place, or on someone else’s property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in jcq lost coursework form the course of literary sexuality, production and consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of form, being adversely affected by the pollutants and literary they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis! In the first place, the emission is international.
No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of literary essays religion, emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to resume legal stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. Essays Religion! And with the master thesis rapid growth of the literary sexuality world’s population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.
This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by cheyney essay the question. It is important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and essays essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Essays On Giving! Evaluation is not required in literary sexuality religion the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. Jcq Lost! This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of literary sexuality religion, continuing climate change. The first of these is on giving back flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the sexuality religion destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.
The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the essay contest benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of literary essays, energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. Essay Contest! The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the literary essays religion need to ryan essay find more environmentally friendly methods of religion, producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is back now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Essays Sexuality! Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the on giving back earth’s crust and the technology now exists to literary extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from form, shale gas may soon be used in place of the essays religion diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. Resume Legal! But is sexuality this a benefit or a cost?
It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and how to essay standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by literary 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and jcq lost form stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.
Again in my view, the costs which the essays religion UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to essays be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the a college essay UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and literary religion other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the back candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in literary essays religion a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by resume samples strong enough analysis.
The analysis should have focused on literary sexuality, diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. Engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis! The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and sexuality terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to coursework consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in sexuality religion places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is jcq lost quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |