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banana split essay A savory reward on a hot summer’s night and the perfect dessert to share on a date; what gave the banana split such a sweet reputation? This dessert is not just a treat for the tongue, but it also has a rich history topped a fair amount of engineering paper outline controversy. The turmoil over who really invented the banana split has gone on for quite some time, but it may never be determined (or accepted, depending on one’s point of view) who invented this delectable treat. The strongest case for hunter writing, the title of “Home of the genetic paper outline Banana Split” belongs to cbt reflective essays, Latrobe, Westmoreland County. Not only has the original letter by Latrobe pharmacy owner and creator David Strickler been uncovered, but the genetic engineering research paper outline Greensburg Tribune-Review documented the mediation invention as well. In the article, Rachel Smith gives credit for the first banana split to David Stickler who “had sliced a banana in two, added scoops of strawberry, vanilla and chocolate ice cream, three kinds of flavored toppings and whipped cream” in genetic research paper, 1904. This ingenuity had allowed for resume mediation, the creation of the delicious dessert, but there was no proper way for it to be served.

This prompted Strickler to engineering research paper, elicit outside help from question a glassmaker in Grapeville who created the first “banana boat” to genetic engineering paper outline, house his masterpiece. David Strickler ,a.k.a. Doc Strickler, has been crowned the king of the banana split dessert by legal, Pennsylvanians and Americans alike. Strickler was attending the University of Pittsburgh at engineering paper outline, the time. Thirty miles from Pittsburgh, Strickler worked as a soda jerk for how to, Tassell Pharmacy at 805 Ligonier Street in Latrobe. Genetic Engineering Research Outline. During this time, pharmacies also had soda fountains which served floats, sundaes, and different varieties of how to letter ice cream. In the early 1900s, the soda fountain business flourished and was a very popular social spot. The employees (also known as soda jerks) were seen by the public as masters of their craft. The soda jerk’s duties entailed making ice cream and mixing soda drinks. Strickler recalled in an interview with Suzanne Martinson of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , “It was a fun job and a great opportunity to meet girls.” As the story goes, one day in genetic research, 1904, a college student entered Tassell Pharmacy and asked Strickler for something “different.” This twenty three year old entrepreneur had many possible ingredients in front of him; all he had to do was put his imagination to work. Voila!

The Banana Split was born! David Strickler continued to work at on the, Tassell Pharmacy for many years. After mastering life as a soda jerk, he eventually bought the Pharmacy. Upon taking ownership, the location was renamed Strickler’s Pharmacy. Despite compelling evidence establishing “Doc” Strickler as the creator, both Boston and Wilmington, Ohio continually show up on genetic engineering research outline the radar when discussing the question palestinienne history of the banana split. These cities tried to gain recognition for creating the first banana split very shortly after Strickler had officially created the engineering paper dessert. How To A Customer Service Letter. The Soda Fountain Magazine wrote an article declaring that the genetic engineering research banana split made its first debut at samples, an ice cream convention in Boston. This conference, in Boston, credited Stinson Thomas as the inventor in 1905, one year after Strickler’s documented claim to the dessert. Boston has since ceded the title over to Strickler and does no longer pride itself on being the paper home of the banana split. Latrobe has faced dogged competition from Wilmington, Ohio, on the question of the write a customer service letter origin of the banana split.

This rivalry has persisted for almost a century. Wilmington has not been willing to concede the origin of the banana split, even though Ernest Hazard, “the creator,” proclaimed the birth date of the dessert as 1907. Regardless of any evidence or documents, Wilmington holds fast to the notion that Hazard created the banana split before Strickler. They have continued to host celebrations that proclaim this fact and have adapted an annual Banana Split Festival in its honor. The festival began in June 1997, and they have continued to celebrate it ever since. Latrobe does not have an annual festival celebrating the sundae, but in 2004, they had a Banana Split Bash. This celebration marked the centennial of the banana split. The Bash was held in genetic research paper outline, a park and the festivities included a day of live music and, of course, banana splits. The University of Pittsburgh also celebrated their famous alumnus on resume this day by distributing the dessert across campus at an event called “From Pitt Came the Split.” Valley Dairy restaurant chain president Joseph “Ice Cream Joe” Greubel notes that the outline National Ice Cream Retailers Association has declared that Latrobe is the birthplace of the resume legal samples banana split.

It should be noted, however, that the Valley Dairy chain is research located in resume, Westmoreland County. A traditional Doc Strickler banana split is composed of a single banana split in half lengthwise with each half strategically placed on opposing sides of the dish. Engineering Research Paper Outline. Scoops of chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry ice cream are placed between the banana slices. Hunter Writing Major. The ice cream is outline then covered with chocolate syrup, whipped cream, nuts, and a cherry on top. If the bananas are cut crosswise, the dish would then be a “banana royale.” The Boston version of the banana split has many modifications with its preparation when compared to Strickler’s version. The Boston recipe is composed of only vanilla ice cream and only two scoops of ice cream (instead of three). Cherries were placed on top of both scoops of ice cream and peaches were used as dividers between the cbt reflective scoops. Pistachios and crushed walnuts were also used to top off this version of the sundae. Wilmington had a version that differed slightly from the original Latrobe recipe as well.

Although the Wilmington version used three scoops of ice cream as Strickler did, the variations of ice cream flavors were not documented. This version also included crushed pineapple as a topping, which is not part of engineering research paper Strickler’s original design. As time has passed, “traditional” banana splits have come to include chocolate, strawberry, and pineapple sauces. Wilmington splits, however, also can include caramel sauce. When Doc Strickler premiered the split, it was only a whopping ten cents!

While this may sound like a bargain in today’s economy, at hunter writing, the time it was actually quite expensive and genetic paper, was double the price of other sundaes. Students from nearby Saint Vincent College were credited in spreading awareness of the service letter banana split across the globe. The college even hosted a make your own banana split buffet on special occasions such as parents’ weekend and the beginning of school. When the students traveled to their hometowns on vacation, they shared the new creation with family and friends, increasing its popularity nationally and making the banana split a new favorite everywhere. And a favorite it has remained for over a century.

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How to Write the research outline Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay. Over at Inside PA Training Paul wrote a wonderful blog post about the common pitfalls that many PA school applicants fall victim to while composing their PA school essay. Common Physician Assistant Essay Pitfalls. Cliches Lack of Specificity Weak Conclusion No Theme Boring Introduction. This is an excellent list because eight years ago while I was applying to PA school I proved how adhering to each one of these elements was a guaranteed formula for failure. I wrote a blog post awhile back about how to olympics, get into the PA school of your choice. Part of my recommendation was to throw caution to the wind and apply with your heart and not your mind.

This as you know, is easier said than done. Every one of the above pitfalls is what happens when you think too much. The Six Hundred Words (or Less) that Changed my Life. I applied to five PA schools in 2001 (prior to genetic engineering research paper, The Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA). First, I used an write service essay that I thought gave the review committee everything they would need to see that I was a stellar applicant. It showed my strengths, brown nosed a bit, and proved that I had the pedigree to research outline, be a wonderful healthcare provider. But, as you will see, it lacked heart, honesty, passion and most of all . . . grit.

I received my fourth rejection letter as I was completing my application for the University of write service reference, Medicine and Dentistry (UMDNJ). I was demoralized. That night I sat down at genetic paper outline, my computer and composed what would become the 600 words that changed my life forever. I had not read them for over 11 years until this morning. I had never taken the a customer time to go back and see what made the difference. What had made the genetic engineering paper outline essay I sent to UMDNJ different from the previous four flops? I was thinking about this list of essay pitfalls this morning and decided to go back and question palestinienne dissertation, see if I could find my original essays. I was delighted to find all of them, they brought back strong feelings and wonderful memories.

I am going to share with you both essays. The one that worked, the one that didn't, and I want you to guess the winner. Avoid the urge to reveal the genetic engineering research paper outline answer, reading through both essays will help you as you sit down to write your personal statement. When I applied to college creative writing major, UMDNJ (Rutgers) I was 0.1 points below the minimum GPA requirement to even consider sending an application. Research Paper Outline? The fact that they opened my application, and offered me an interview was a miracle. Yet, I was admitted just a week after my trip to New Jersey. Where were those other 4.0 Ivy leaguers I met during my interview? They were placed on the waiting list. I am not trying to gloat, but I want to point out that the essay may be the single most important thing you do . Resume? I believe it is the reason I was accepted to PA school. Two PA School Applications Essays: Why Do You Want To Be a PA-C? Why Do You Want To Be a Physician Assistant?

Every day is a gift to be embraced wholeheartedly. Genetic Engineering Research Paper Outline? It is our job to fill that day with a hopeful and meaningful purpose. Essays? It has been said that “the most important thing in life is to live your life for something more important than your life” William James. It is deeply rooted in this philosophy that I desire to genetic engineering outline, become a physician assistant (PA). I hope to provide quality healthcare to the underprivileged, an area of medicine, which I have noted to be dramatically underserved.

I became involved in health care four years ago to legal samples, help finance my college education. Research? I worked as a medical record's clerk in the University of Washington health clinic. In addition to delivering medical records, I assisted the hospital staff in resume mediation a variety of activities. I loved working with the staff and admired how well they operated as a team. I desired more direct patient care and in genetic engineering research paper outline January 1998, when a student position opened in the lab, I jumped at the opportunity. In a few weeks, I was drawing blood, interacting with patients, and helping with a variety of resume legal samples, technical procedures. I loved what I was doing. The patients were often uneasy when facing a needle for the first time. Genetic? I was able to comfort them, help them to how to a customer service, smile, and ease their nervous tensions.

My job required that I work throughout the various University hospitals. Genetic Paper Outline? This provided an opportunity to work within a variety of settings, and on the olympics, with people of all ages. Whether it was doing morning rounds in labor and delivery or working in the campus health clinic, one thing always remained the same; I found great satisfaction in paper caring for patients and learning of essays, their needs. I felt a career in genetic engineering research outline medicine was truly for me. While working at the clinic I discovered the PA profession. I have always enjoyed the complexities of science and have been fascinated by dissertations on the a career in medicine. In pursuit of this goal, I decided to speak with one of the genetic engineering research outline resident doctors in the clinic. She introduced me to the role of Physician Assistant.

After that, I immersed myself in research. I was surprised to learn that many people with whom I worked were Physician Assistants. I met with hospital staff, nurse practitioners, Physician Assistants, and physical therapists. I regularly visited the PA at write a customer service, the clinic and admired his significant level of patient interaction and genetic, his ability to work both autonomously and alongside other physicians and nurses. I admired the PA program's flexibility and essays, versatility, which would allow a change of specialties if I desired. I began to focus my attention on becoming a PA.

Being an independent thinker, as well as a people oriented individual; I feel that I am well suited, not just for engineering research, a career in the medical field, but for a lifetime career as a Physician Assistant. Why Do You Want To Be a Physician Assistant? As a child, every day, I would swing on the swing set in college writing the backyard of my house. I would sit there for hours, without a care in the world simply singing songs and swinging back and forth. On that swing, I felt untouchable. Like a bird in genetic research paper flight, my only cares were that of the sky and the beauty of each adjoining minute. In the swings gentle motion I was overcome with a sense of peace. We wake one day and find that the swing no longer exists. Our backyard has been rebuilt and hunter college writing, the ground, which had once supported our youth, has been transcended. We search again for the swing, longing to find a resemblance of that peace.

We hope to find it each day, as the product of our life and of our career. A woman smiled at engineering paper outline, me one day, her name was Margaret. How To Write Service? The wrinkles on her face told a story and in her hands there played a motion picture. She sat crouched in a wheelchair; I sat on a stool beside her. I had been working as a phlebotomist in the University Clinic for outline, two years. I was a friend of Margaret’s because every Wednesday at how to a customer service, six she would arrive at the clinic for her routine blood work. Everybody liked Margaret; she used to tell us stories of her childhood and her husband who had given his life to the war. She had grown especially fond of me because “I had freckles like her grandson.” She used to come alone, but had grown weaker; this was the first time her daughter had accompanied her. Her daughter looked tired and spoke softly, “The best vein is in her hand” she explained, “it doesn’t hurt her there.” I gently placed my hand on research paper hers, and it was cold.

She looked to me and through the cold touch of her hand poured the warmth of mediation, her heart. “It’s about genetic, time for dinner don’t you think mom”, said her daughter. The clock rang six and I agreed. “The medicines have been making her sick; she sometimes has troubles keeping her food down.” I looked closely at her face; it was thin and resume legal samples, drooped to her chest. I realized that Margaret was unable to speak. “Margaret, can you make a fist for genetic engineering research, me?” “Just like last time.” She clenched tightly. I withdrew the needle and collected a small sample of blood. Resume Samples? She raised her head and with her frail hand, gently placed it on mine. Genetic Engineering Research? I looked again to her eyes while placing a bandage on her hand. It was warm now. “Time for dinner mom”, replied her daughter. Resume Legal Samples? I smiled and genetic research, waved goodbye “Margaret I will see you again next week.” She raised her head and smiled. Without a word, she made perfect sense. I never saw Margaret again.

In the memory of Margaret and every patient who has individually touched my every day, I have regained a piece of the backyard swing that I loved so much as a child. Question Dissertation? I have been directly involved in research outline health care for four years. Every day has brought great joy. To be a part of a person’s day is a wonderful blessing. Certainly, there are many pleasures in life. But, for me, none is greater than that which we find in the healing touch of another. As the eternal motion of the swing, it is in creative this that I find great peace. Which essay is the one that worked? The difference: One is written from the heart, the genetic engineering outline other is full of cliches, lacks specificity, has no theme, has a boring introduction and a weak conclusion! In life, almost nothing ever goes to those who try to blend into the crowd.

Your PA School application essay should be different, reflect who you really are and not pander to what you think other people want to hear. This is a rule of thumb not just for your essay and for applying to PA school but for write a customer reference, life in genetic research general. As you write dig deep, don't hold back, believe in your words. Set your mind aside and try to find that place inside your head where your heart resides. This is where you will separate yourself from the crowd, this is where your journey to PA both begins and hunter writing major, ends! The Physician Assistant Essay and research, Personal Statement Collaborative Are you ready to question dissertation, get started? Choose your package, and research paper, we will begin today! Single Edit One-on-one service Supplemental Essays We have helped over 1,700 PA school applicants just like you (see testimonials and comments below).

We are [] PA Personal Statement Workshop: Essay 6, “That First Day in Surgery was the First Day of the hunter creative writing Rest of my Life” In this sixth installment of our special week-long personal statement workshop, we continue to pull essays submitted from the comments section through our free essay submission process and genetic engineering paper outline, provide you, and how to write a customer service, our users, with a more [] Overcoming Obstacles on Your Path to Becoming a Physician Assistant Life is full of obstacles. Genetic Engineering Outline? They can be as simple as getting out of the bed in the morning, or as arduous as writing the palestinienne perfect physician assistant application essay. Most of the time the research biggest obstacle is resume legal samples, ourselves. The excuses [] Get Your FREE 300+ PA School Interview Questions and paper, Answers Workbook. Sign up below to receive your free 65 page 300 PA school interview questions and answers workbook. We offer comprehensive, start-to-finish personal statement assistance or help to samples, perfect a draft you already have. We have services to fit every budget. Schedule a Live Recorded PA School Video Interview.

A physician assistant since 2004 and research, creator of The PA Life. A National Health Service Corps Scholar and a graduate of The University of college creative major, Medicine and Dentistry of NJ (Rutgers) PA program and the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. Stephen's goal is to genetic engineering paper, provide one of a kind online resources for those interested in or practicing in college creative writing major the PA profession, to promote better access to genetic outline, healthcare for all and resume legal, foster universal recognition/awareness of the genetic paper PA profession. I think your second essay is a much more sincere, mature and thought provoking essay. Resume? That being said, your inappropriate context of the word “weather” in your first essay could be a reason you were overlooked. Correct spelling, wrong context. Hi, Danielle, you are absolutely right. In fact, there is more than one glaring error in genetic research outline that first essay. It took some willpower to avoid correcting these errors before I posted my essays online but I figured it was a good teaching point. I must say though I am impressed, after all the years I have had this post and cbt reflective essays, these essays published online you are the first to ever mention the genetic paper spelling/grammar mistakes.

And they are so very important. If I was Willy Wonka, I would give you the golden ticket:-) I’m looking for feedback on what to cut out of my personal statement, its over 800 characters too long, but I felt like each paragraph was important. Thanks in advance! “Rummy!” He bellowed between labored breaths. Tom’s face was pale and beads of sweat lined his nasal cannula as he stifled back laughter. I was, once again, lost in the rules of yet another new card game Tom was teaching me. “You have got to mediation, be aware of the cards other people can have in research outline their hand,” he reminded me, as he tallied up his points to pull ahead.

A nurse snuck in the room between games to test Tom’s blood glucose and oxygen saturation. As I shuffled the resume legal cards I saw the look of concern on her face. Genetic Engineering Outline? “I think we can pick up where we are for next week Tom,”I suggested. “And hopefully I’ll be better at Rummy by mediation then anyway”. Tom passed the following day, unknowingly leaving me with a lot more knowledge than how to play euchre or Texas hold ’em. I began volunteering with Southern Care Hospice with the expectation to learn more about palliative and end of life care; instead, I gained insight on primary care through a friendship with an Indiana farmer.Tom was dealt what he taught me in Texas Hold ‘em as the “poor farmer’s hand”. Genetic Engineering? It was easy to look at Tom the first day and see an obese man who made lifestyle choices that led to his poor health, but with each week I learned more about the trials in his life that landed him in his hospice bed. Growing up in a small rural community, Tom lacked reliable access to dissertations olympics, medical care and genetic, often went without doctor’s visits. Major? As a result, his diabetes was poorly treated and resulted in a cascade of engineering research paper outline, medical complications.While I knew I couldn’t solve all of these issues for people like Tom, I strived to to help help those who fell into the healthcare disparity gap. Multiple times growing up, life only dealt my family wild cards. Job loss, followed by lack of insurance became a reoccurring game I was accustomed to cbt reflective, losing. The norm quickly became visits to urgent cares and emergency departments for any of my medical needs.

It was here that I was first introduced to the PA profession. What I once viewed as misfortune actually introduced me to the influential role of a physician assistant. I shuffled through the deck of healthcare professions before drawing the card for the PA route. Intrigued by genetic medical doctors, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants, I began shadowing each to note the similarities yet distinct differences in college creative writing major each. Despite making the choice to become a PA early in my undergraduate career, my decision became clairvoyant as my senior year came to a close and I met a physician assistant named Julie, an interventional cardiologist at the hospital I worked at. A tiny, 90 year old woman sat upright in bed, squinting towards Julie and I as we walked in engineering paper outline the door.

Julie carefully and meticulously described the heart cath procedure the surgeon would be performing, patiently answering each question that arose. When the patient didn’t understand the dissertation anatomy of her coronary arteries, Julie pulled out a dry erase marker and began to sketch the genetic engineering research paper outline left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries, adding a tiny stent within the vessel for example. Each time Julie entered a patient’s room, she went the extra inch—whether it was letting a patient hear their heart murmur through her stethoscope, or drawing out the anatomy of a heart cath procedure. Julie played an integral role in a team of cardiologists, filling in the gaps for busy doctors and question palestinienne, working with nurses to ensure each procedure was smooth and flawless. Through Julie, I saw the level of responsibility, patience, and genetic research paper, compassion required to practice as a PA, further cementing my desire to fulfill that role.

I pursued a more tangible role in healthcare as a Rehabilitation Technician at IU Health Bloomington Hospital. Here, the intricacies of patient care surfaced as I saw the collaboration among all professions to provide a high standard of care. While I primarily assisted physical and cbt reflective essays, occupational therapists, I frequently consulted with nurses about a patient’s status before a rehab session, or helped a doctor maneuver a patient out of bed for assessment. The patient’s overall physical and emotional health was impacted by the successful collaboration of the entire healthcare team. Genetic Research Paper? Even though I enjoyed being a part of that, I yearned for the responsibility to asses, diagnose, treat, and hold a level of autonomy for my patients. Overall, my undergraduate career provided me the insight on what defines a PA, but also geared me towards becoming a successful PA student.

Juggling multiple jobs to cover the remaining costs of hunter college writing, undergrad, I mastered multitasking and thrived in genetic research a stressful environment. I excelled in prerequisite coursework, eventually becoming an undergraduate teaching assistant for physiology. Although I enjoyed teaching physiology material, I cherished the opportunity to legal, teach others about the PA profession. As Pre-PA Club President, I was able to advise, guide, and engineering research paper, fuel my classmates desire to enter the field. My aspirations are to not only resume become a PA, but eventually utilize my proclivity to teach as a PA preceptor and educator one day. The decision to become a PA wasn’t instantaneous, but instead a premeditated journey over the last handful of genetic, years. This path taught me the olympics integral role PAs can have on high-quality patient care in a system strained with primary care providers. It showed me the engineering crucial and overlooked qualities of compassion and patience that the job demands.

Teamwork in healthcare became not only enjoyable for me, but a necessity for putting my patient’s needs first. Looking back, I can’t imagine choosing another career route that didn’t lead me to these encompassing experiences. Lastly, this journey introduced me to Tom and how to play Rummy. If there’s one thing I’ve taken away, it’s that everyone is mediation, dealt a different hand of cards in outline life. The least I can do is be there for those who are dealt a bad hand.

“You are such an old soul” is something I hear quite often from friends, family, and acquaintances. This perception from so many is in fact a product of valuable life experiences that begun at dissertations, a very young age. Genetic Research? “Mommy, are you going to die?” I asked my mother who was becoming more frail from treatments from stage 2 breast cancer. At seven, I was trying to understand many things, such as why we moved into my grandparents’ house, why my father was moving somewhere else, but most importantly why my mother, who was the most important person to me, was losing all of her hair and becoming too weak to care for me as she once had. My grandparents picked up the responsibilities for resume mediation, my mom while she underwent six months of chemotherapy treatments and 36 radiation treatments. Genetic Research Paper? My grandfather became my biggest support during this hard time, and stepped up when I needed him the resume mediation most. My grandfather was my male role model during those formidable years of my parents’ divorce and my mother, his daughter, was fighting cancer. Grandpop picked me up every day after school, helped me with my homework, and genetic engineering outline, teased me until I couldn’t take it anymore. I cherished every moment I had with him. I was only nine when my grandfather suffered from a serious stroke that left him without his speech, loss of strength, and issues with coordination. How To Write Service Reference? He was devastated and I watched him become more and more frustrated while seeking out different treatments to aid in his healing process. Watching him try to research paper outline, recover from the olympics stroke was difficult.

I just wanted to help him, and understand why he could no longer speak or why he stopped teasing me relentlessly. As the years went on, my grandfather never fully recovered and genetic paper outline, he forever lost his ability to hunter college, speak, but I watched him fight every day to live as normal of a life as he could. He passed away when I was sixteen and although I was not able to help my grandpop, observing the difficulties he went through has made me more determined than ever to engineering paper outline, choose a career that will allow me to care for others as I had wanted to with my grandfather. James and I clicked right away while I was working as a rehab technician for an inpatient rehab facility. Cbt Reflective Essays? I was supporting him while we practiced gait with the walker, we discussed many topics that reminded me of my grandfather. As our session ended, I took him back up to his room and told him I would see him next week, but little did I know it would be weeks before I saw him again. As I was walking through the gym just a few short weeks later, I noticed a man sitting in genetic engineering research paper a wheelchair looking sad, in pain, and how to service letter, uncomfortable.

As I walked closer to the gray looking man, I noticed it was James. I lit up with joy and asked how he was doing. He looked at genetic engineering paper, me with a frown and could only grunt in response, and it was then I realized he had suffered a stroke. I started to talk with him about all the things he loved such as fishing, and the beach. He started to dissertations on the olympics, smile, and this encouraged him to paper outline, keep going even though he was frustrated and in hunter pain. Every shift I would stop by to talk to James and ask how he and his wife were doing. I would stay and talk with him for a while knowing he would appreciate it. So often many people would not know what to say to him because he could not respond back appropriately. Research Outline? One day his wife acknowledged how well I worked with him, and how appreciative she was of me. With tears filling up my eyes, I told her the resume mediation story of my grandfather, and genetic engineering outline, how he also suffered a stroke that left him without his speech. I told her that although at mediation, times things were difficult for my grandfather, he was always strong and learned to live with the diagnosis for many years to come.

James regained his strength and was able to genetic research outline, be discharged, and on his last day I went up to his room to say one last goodbye, I gave him a hug, and as I pulled away he looked at me and resume, muttered thank you to engineering research, the best of cbt reflective, his capabilities. Research Outline? I smiled back and told him to take care of himself, and that I would miss him. Before I left, I thanked him and told him how thankful I was to be a part of his journey, and how he helped me grow stronger as a healthcare professional. Being an old soul can mean many different things to different people, but to me it means experience. When people hear my story of my childhood they are very sympathetic. Often I have to explain that even though it was hard, there was many things I gained from my experiences. They say you have to experience sadness to enjoy happiness, and my happiness was being able to see my very strong mother beat breast cancer and be in write service reference letter remission for the past sixteen years. My happiness is being able to have a close bond to my grandparents that some grandchildren can’t say they have.

My experiences at genetic engineering research, a young age from my mother and how to write a customer service reference letter, grandfather being sick to my experiences as a rehab tech have guided me on an amazing journey of finding out who I want to be as a grow older, and that dream would to genetic paper outline, be a physician assistant. Thank you for your help! I want you to question palestinienne, meet Donna*. She has been through so much. Four back surgeries.

Physical therapy. Countless injections. Long-term opioids. Ten years of constant pain. Unfortunately, Donna is my typical patient, and engineering research paper, we are nearing the end of the palestinienne road. There are very few options left for Donna if this treatment does not work. Today is Donna’s procedure. Genetic Research Paper? When I met her at the office, she was draped in turquoise jewelry and a floral print dress, undoubtedly a free-spirit of the 60’s. Question Palestinienne? Now, she is wearing a paper gown, and she seems alone and anxious. I make an engineering paper outline effort to legal samples, be warm and confident as we discuss the procedure, hoping to put her at ease. She has post-laminectomy syndrome.

Twenty-four hours a day, Donna has intense low back pain that radiates down both legs. She has trouble sleeping, walking, and cannot play with her grandchildren. I review the procedure with her and what we hope to outline, accomplish for her. Cbt Reflective? “I just want to get off the pills,” Donna proclaims, a little forlorn. “We are going to do our best,” I promise her and grasp her hand before leaving her room. I hope we can deliver. Donna is here today for a spinal cord stimulator trial and research outline, I am her clinical specialist. At one time, her physician could manage her chronic pain with opioids and palestinienne, injections, but after a decade their efficacy has waned and the opioids leave her hazy and engineering research outline, lethargic. If the spinal cord stimulator does not work, she will likely remain on opioids for the remainder of her life. During the procedure, the palestinienne dissertation physician and engineering paper, I work as a team to deliver an how to a customer service reference letter electrical stimulation to the nerves carrying the genetic engineering research paper pain signal to the brain. Essays? The procedure sounds simple, but is often wrought with challenges that must be overcome in genetic engineering paper outline order to produce a successful outcome. In Donna’s case, she has significant fibrosis in the epidural space from her previous back surgeries which means the resume mediation physician is engineering research outline, unable to place the leads in an ideal position. By examining the fluoroscopic imaging and question palestinienne dissertation, using Donna’s feed back, I am able to generate a field which provides Donna with the desired therapy.

Donna will return on Friday to have the genetic engineering paper outline trial system removed and assess the pain relief she experienced. My love of writing major, science began with the ocean. As a child, our spent every available hour at the beach. Genetic Engineering Paper? Playing in the waves, digging holes and dams in cbt reflective essays the sand, watching the coastal flora and fauna interact in engineering research paper outline their environment fed my curiosity of the natural world. As I began my education, I enjoyed history and college creative, literature, but the sciences always peaked a special interest. In elementary school, our yearly field trip to the aquarium was my favorite day of the genetic research outline year. In middle school I won the science fair with my analysis of college creative writing, fire-retardant baby clothing. In my sophomore year of high school, I met the teacher who influenced my the most, Dr. Price, my AP Biology teacher. I knew I wanted to succeed in genetic research AP Biology but Dr.

Price refused to hold anyone’s hand. My success or failure would be my own. At the end of the year, we all took the AP exam. I still vividly remember opening the results and seeing the “5.” It gave me the confidence that I could pursue a career in the sciences. As I began courses at the University of California – Santa Cruz, I decided to study biochemistry because it would provide me with a deep understanding of biological systems.

Our biochemistry program was rigorous, working full-time made it more so. After graduating, I considered research and volunteered in a marine biology laboratory. Resume Mediation? The subject matter was fascinating but found the research paper outline daily operation uninspiring and inert. I always considered a career in medicine, so when I was offered a position as a clinical specialist I jumped at the opportunity. The two years as a clinical specialist were the toughest and most rewarding of my life. Mediation? The role of CS was multi-faceted. I was a member of a collaborative surgical team, where I learned to genetic, think critically in stressful situations. I was responsible for educating clinicians on new technologies, which taught me the importance of lifelong learning in medicine. Question Palestinienne? I worked closely with patients, which taught me compassion is as important as clinical skill. I learned I loved working with patients.

The long hours, challenging surgeries, and tough programmings were made worthwhile when I saw a patient transformed into the vibrant person they once were. I was ecstatic to help my patients, but I wanted to offer them more. I decided to explore other careers in healthcare and paper, saw PA as a perfect fit. A career as a PA would provide me the write a customer reference opportunity to expand my clinical skills and focus on treating patients like Donna. Donna’s trial was successful. She was implanted two years ago. Her pain has decreased 80% and genetic research paper, she rarely needs pain medication. We stay in touch. Write A Customer? I send her photos of my infant son and she tells me to enjoy this rare time with him.

And she tells me how much fun it is playing with her grandchildren. *name has been changed. It was summer time and genetic research outline, all the kids were off school. I was only 12-years old and that day I was in charge of resume mediation, looking after my little sister and outline, cousins. They started playing with my fathers old concrete making machine and, at one point,I heard my sister screaming from inside the house. Two of her left hand fingers were caught in the machinery and were cut very badly. My family is known for hunter college, being afraid of blood. They freeze and genetic engineering research paper outline, almost faint when they see blood; especially my mother. Good thing she was not there at that moment because she would scream more than my sister.

As soon as I saw my sister’s hand, I got her inside the house. I cleaned her hand and ran to the cabinet where we had a few medications and got the iodine bottle and mediation, some compresses. I poured some iodine on genetic research outline her fingers and wrapped them very quickly. The reaction to my sister’s accident was the first push for dissertations olympics, me towards medical school, but, at that moment, I did not put much thought into it. As a child raised in engineering research outline Albania, I come from a small and poor family, but it never stopped my parents from making school the priority for me and my little sister.They worked very hard so they could afford our education. When I finished high school, I had the opportunity to go to nursing school in Albania for a few months. I will always remember the resume time when my parents found out that I was accepted to genetic research, nursing school. Hunter College Writing? I could see their happiness and how proud they felt.

During the time that I applied for nursing school in Albania, I also completed an application for coming to the United States as an engineering outline international student. A couple months after I started nursing school, I received a confirmation that I was accepted. It was a great achievement and a privilege for legal, me. Once I came to genetic paper, United States, I began English as a Second Language courses at Cuyahoga Community College in Parma. One year after I had entered the U.S., I met my husband. Not too long after we met we moved in together. We were both very young and both full-time students.

In order to afford a living and to continue our studies, we both had to work very hard. We continued to be full-time students, as well as worked full-time and part-time jobs. A Customer Service Reference Letter? It has been hard and sometimes it felt impossible, but we have tried to do our best. Soon, the time for studying was shrinking and we were having a hard time to keep up with good grades and trying to survive with the rest of engineering outline, our living expenses. The struggle we had in our personal life affected my grades and, as a result, my GPA; but it did not make me stop and give up on my studies.

My interest was still science and the medical field. Like the first time I came to cbt reflective essays, the U.S., I still wanted to continue onto medical school. During the time that I was taking science classes, a family friend pointed me towards the physician assistant career path. Once I had heard of it, I decided to talk to one of the research paper outline advisors at school and learn more. The advisor encouraged me to shadow a physician assistant and service, see the engineering research paper type of responsibility they had compared to physicians. I started shadowing a physician assistant at Kaiser Permanente hospital in the emergency room for question palestinienne dissertation, few hours a week, for about two months. Within the first hour of genetic engineering research paper, shadowing the on the olympics physician assistant, I was amazed with her work. Genetic Research Paper? The way she interacted with patients, along with the way she worked with doctors, nurses, and the rest of the team was amazing.

During the resume time I was shadowing the pa, a patient came in engineering research outline with an epidermoid cyst on the scalp that was leaking and causing the patient a lot of pain. The pa asked me to assist her at that moment and legal, I jumped at the chance and engineering research outline, was ready for whatever would happen. I assisted her as she cleaned the dissertations olympics wound and research paper, medicated it delicately, trying not to college creative, hurt the patient. Once the pa was finished with the patient’s wound, she made sure the patient was feeling better and recommended for the lady to follow up with a doctor. Genetic Research Paper? Minutes later, the patient left feeling better and that was as a result of dissertations on the, not only the great work pa did, but also as a result of a warm, personable, and reassuring attitude of the pa.

Since that day, I have admired the work they do and the way they care for patients. A career in medical field is not easy and genetic engineering research paper outline, it requires a lot of palestinienne, work, patience, passion and dedication. Throughout the years I have been in engineering research outline U.S. and worked; I have been noticed and I have proved that I am a very hard working person and very dedicated. It is true that my GPA is not where it should be, but that is not what defines me. I hope that Admissions will see past my mediocre GPA and give me the chance I deserve. Give me the chance to join the great team of physician assistants and help patient’s feel better. I was wondering if you could help with these questions. Cbt Reflective? I came up with some answers but I wanted a PAs point of genetic engineering research, view. Please add on if you have any idea. What potential challenges do you see associated with the future of the PA profession? How would you address these challenges? (you will be limited to 2000 characters—about 300 words)

Where do most PAs go after school. Family medicine So what about on the olympics, other subspeciaties? Increase number of people, training program match attending not in other hospital settings, More subspeciality training. Broaden their knowledge – short time period with limited pt interaction. Knowing the boundaries of each PA’s scope of practice. Education and experience- continue medical experience. State law- most states now allow the detail of each PA’s scope of practice to genetic engineering paper, be decided at how to letter, the practice level. Policies and employers and facilities. Needs of the patients and practice. Physician Assistant name.

Q17. If you could pass a law that would help PAs, what would it be? Briefly tell us why you would pass the law. (you will be limited to 2000 characters—about 300 words) Increase the number of seats in engineering paper each class. As the patient began choking, the essays knowledge of the genetic research outline appropriate response rushed in on a wave of adrenaline. The decision to resume, wait and make sure her airway was completely obstructed felt paradoxical to the urge to act immediately. Research Outline? As her coughs ceased and question, she became unable to vocalize a response to my inquiry of engineering research paper, whether she could speak, it became clear that the Heimlich maneuver was necessary. College Creative? I instructed the engineering paper outline other patients to clear the immediate area and wrapped my arms around her waist as I had learned, thumb side in resume mediation above the navel.

I began abdominal thrusts—one, two, three thrusts before the object dislodged. Engineering Paper? In the moment, I was simply relieved that the patient was safe. Upon reflection, I was mystified by hunter college creative writing my ability to genetic research paper outline, take charge of a situation and essays, employ a technique that had only ever been presented to me hypothetically. Seeing her recover and realizing firsthand that life can evaporate in a few brief energetic moments, I realized something important about the genetic research outline core of my purpose in life: helping people with direct action is the hunter writing only thing that makes me feel alive. The experience solidified my resolve to attain the engineering research paper outline knowledge I need to be a leader in critical situations. As a child, I wanted to mediation, be a healthcare professional. Even with a lack of understanding of the intricacies of engineering outline, what that entails, I imagined what it must be like to have people rely on you in their times of greatest need and to question palestinienne dissertation, actually be able to research paper, meet those standards.

Striving for academic achievement and involvement in high school revealed its worth when I received full tuition to the University of Southern Mississippi. I entered with premed path in line with what I had desired for years. However, with my education fully funded, I decided it would be beneficial to diversify my focus and how to service reference, ensure that my desire for a healthcare career was more than a prescribed fantasy that I had claimed without considering alternatives. Genetic Engineering Outline? I enrolled in business and journalism classes to quickly find that, while interesting, these subjects did not inspire any sort of passion. I then pursued psychology and resume samples, fell in love.

As an introspective person, gaining a framework for analyzing cognition and behavior was immediately appealing. I worked hard in my courses and wrote an engineering research paper outline undergraduate thesis about adolescent narcissism’s relation to motivation. Hunter Creative Writing Major? And yet, as much as I enjoyed the subject matter, the intrigue of the medical field had not subsided. Researching healthcare careers that related to psychology, I found occupational therapy as a prospect. Having completed anatomy and physiology courses, I began shadowing occupational therapists at genetic engineering research paper outline, Wesley Medical Clinic to understand what it really meant to hunter college creative, be an occupational therapist. Though interesting and respectable, I realized that this path strayed too far from my interest in human abnormal behavior. It would not satisfy my desire to genetic research paper, analyze mental illness and help those suffering from it both psychologically and physiologically. Not long after, I spoke to mediation, a physician assistant about genetic research paper outline, her profession. Resume Mediation? I then spoke to others and all vocalized career satisfaction in almost every aspect I could imagine. Through research and conversations and engineering outline, my experiences at cbt reflective essays, South Mississippi State Hospital, I understood with clarity that my search for a career that fit my values and genetic paper outline, interests was not in vain.

I would do whatever it took to become a psychiatric physician assistant. Irene Fenswick says. Stephen, your second essay is awesome! Unfortunately, physician assistants essays are as a rule full of cliches and legal samples, a weak introduction and conclusion. Sometimes It seems that people do it on purpose as they think that it should be like that. I loved this article as you have provided two samples and the reader can compare and decide which one would work for them.

Great job! You hit the nail on genetic research paper outline the head with your comment. I think people do what feels safe (myself included). Resume Mediation? Sometimes this works out, and we are rewarded for our efforts – especially if you have an research application that shines in how to a customer other places. Sometimes (possibly) PA schools like “safe”. But “safe” (as it was in my case) can leave you with a stack of rejection letters. Genetic Research Outline? The personal statement is the only chance we get to essays, reveal our personalities, so it should be used wisely.

I have read and helped edit over genetic engineering paper 1300 essays through our editing service. It is awesome to see the variety and diversity of essays we receive. I used to think that it would be like music, you can only come up with so many rhythms until suddenly you have heard them all. But just like music, you can take a common rhythm, with a 4/4 beat and add your voice, your own unique sound. And when the admissions committee presses play, it is music to their ears #128578; Take care and thanks for the wonderful comment! Callie Munson says. My personal statement is the most challenging writing assignment I have ever had.

It is forcing me to question, reflect on engineering my motivations, my strengths, and my weaknesses. My academic history, volunteer work, and job experiences only tell what I have done, not who I am. So, how do I convince you that I warrant an how to a customer service interview? In my daydreams, it is with a perfect personal statement which would flow from my fingertips harmoniously. Instead I wrote 800 word drafts and genetic research paper, deleted them. “Please explain why you are interested in being a PA” played like a broken records in mediation my thoughts. I could not grasp the right story.

But, I was writing narratives, not an exposition. Engineering Research Paper Outline? I want share with potential colleagues why I believe in my aspiration to become a PA. As a medical assistant of North Bend Medical Center (NBMC) in Coos Bay Oregon, I am exposed to resume, several aspects of genetic engineering outline, health care. Collaboration of clinical and legal, non-clinical healthcare members is crucial in meeting those needs. My observations of physicians, mid-level practitioners, care coordination, quality control, and clinic staff forming committees to address barriers to care supports this. I am one of engineering research, those members on a committee to meet standards of care for the Patient Center Primary Care Home Program (PCPCH). PCPCH’s standards of a customer service letter, care are accessibility, accountability, comprehensiveness, continuity, coordination and integration, and patient and family centered care. Currently, my committee role is to provide feedback on certified workflows in the office. I want to fulfill these standards of genetic engineering research paper outline, care a NBMC by returning as a primary care PA. This model is team based and PA’s assume a leadership role.

I value collaboration and work well in this environment. My employment background as a medical assistant in Coos County will provide unique insight in the community specific needs for hunter college creative major, patient care. For example, my current provider and genetic engineering outline, I are piloting a contraception use questionnaire to determine women’s reproductive needs and providing the appropriate resources depending on her stage of life. Physician assistants improve access to care and provide comprehensive and accountable care. Providing accountable care requires understanding pathophysiology, pharmacology, and the art of diagnosis. My background in biology provided me with a basic foundation, but I am ready to expand my scope of dissertations on the, practice. Instead of phoning results to patients or scheduling an appointment, I want to genetic outline, complete a work up and create a treatment plan with patients. Service? We must provide patients with accurate information about their health. This profession offers me an genetic engineering research paper opportunity to engage in lifelong learning by means of collaboration with a supervising physician and other team members, exposure to essays, patient population needs, and access to CME. Genetic Engineering Paper Outline? My current scope of practice contains these same elements: I collaborate with various members of the healthcare team, implement change for results, and want to pursue further education. These skills will serve me well as physician assistant.

Requesting comments on how to write letter my personal statement draft. Thanks! Stephen, your second essay made me cry. I love it. What comes from heart goes to engineering research paper outline, heart. Thank you for sharing your essays. Hi Maryam, thank you for cbt reflective, taking the time to leave such a kind and thoughtful comment! I am glad to see validation for my instinctive reaction regarding the application process—particularly the essay.

I certainly wouldn’t want to present yet another cookie-cutter essay that only stands out genetic outline from the crowd because the dice just happened to resume mediation, come up in engineering my favor. Off-the-cuff writing is my forte, and while I certainly appreciate the ability to write a polished essay, I find that as I’ve gotten older I would rather communicate in a more conversational and relaxed tone. That’s certainly the type of doctor I would like to be, and to which I am drawn. People are not spell-checked in hunter major the real world. Hi David, I think a good example of this is the now famous “Costco Essay” by engineering paper outline high-school senior Brittany Stinson. It combines a polished essay with not necessarily “off-the-cuff” writing, but may more what I would call “balls-out” writing. Question Palestinienne? It seems like it takes courage to stray from the status quo, but in fact it is the path of least resistance! olivia fair says. College admissions essays definitely do not need to be so fraught or serious. The (fairly elite) college I went to accepted me with an essay about the hardships of finding a prom date when you attend an engineering research all-girls’ high school and are a huge dork. Another student in resume my year–allegedly–wrote his essay on a sneaker.

I worked high school admissions for a few years and I can tell you it can be super boring looking over the same cookie cutter applications. A little humor–as long as it’s well written–can go a long long way. […] How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay […] […] and engineering research outline, PANRE practice exams and dissertations olympics, FREE email review series and blog posts about writing a PA school essay would be meaningless if they did not fulfill a higher […] […] take my word for it though, Stephen believes that his 600-word Physician Assistant essay was the reason he was accepted into PA […] […] take my word for it though, Stephen believes that his 600-word Physician Assistant essay was the reason he was accepted into engineering paper outline, PA […] […] application. A great letter of recommendation weighs heavily in your favor, I believe this (and a passion filled essay) is the how to write service reference letter reason that I, an average student from a state university, was able to receive an […] […] the CASPA application Essay and genetic engineering research paper outline, all additional supplemental materials on […] […] How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay […] […] I wrote my PA school essay, the physician I work with read over it to give me tips/advice. That day he tore it apart, […] […] The following phrases provide some variations on the shadowing theme and can be used as a lead in dissertation point as you write your physician assistant personal statement. […] PROFESSIONAL CASPA PERSONAL STATEMENT EDITING AND REVISION SERVICE.

We offer comprehensive, start-to-finish personal statement assistance or help perfecting a draft you already have. We have services to fit every budget. Why do you want to be a PA? We have helped 100's of genetic outline, PA school applicants just like you answer this question. We offer affordable, recorded online interviews with an resume legal samples unprecedented chance for self-critique, with feedback and advice from our team of top PA school admissions experts.

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Choose your package, and we will begin today! Single Edit One-on-one service Supplemental Essays We have helped over 1,700 PA school applicants just like you (see #x02026; [Read More. ] about The Physician Assistant Essay and research paper outline, Personal Statement Collaborative. How to Write the on the olympics Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay. Over at genetic engineering, Inside PA Training Paul wrote a wonderful blog post about the common pitfalls that many PA school applicants fall victim to while composing their PA school essay. Common Physician Assistant #x02026; [Read More. ] about How to how to a customer, Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay. 5 Things I’ve Learned Going Into My Fourth Physician Assistant Application Cycle. I will be honest; this is not an article I ever thought I’d be writing. I submitted my first physician assistant application after finishing my undergrad in 2014, and here I am three years later #x02026; [Read More. ] about 5 Things I’ve Learned Going Into My Fourth Physician Assistant Application Cycle. Do You Recognize These 7 Common Mistakes in Your Personal Statement? You've written your essay.

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Prerequisite Coursework: How to Design the Perfect Pre-PA School Curriculum * To compare top ranking PA schools and download yo. 80 PA Schools That Don’t Require the engineering research paper outline GRE Are you like me and palestinienne dissertation, looking to dodge the GRE? Does t. Healthcare Experience Required for PA School: The Ultimate Guide Patient Care and Healthcare Experience for PA School . Genetic Engineering Research Paper? 31 Physician Assistant Personal Statement Examples Below, are 31 PA school application essays and personal. Write A Customer Service Reference Letter? Physician Assistant Salary by State: 2015 Comparison Table Click here to view the table. What capital city. How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay Over at paper outline, Inside PA Training Paul wrote a wonderful blog. Direct Entry and Dual Degree BS/MS Pre-Physician Assistant Programs Direct Entry PA Programs There are 38 direct entry, du.

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2414 Words Essay on Budget (free to genetic engineering research read) The term #8216; budget #8216; was derived from an old English word Bougett which means a pouch or sack. In fact, it was a leather bag from which the British Chancellor of Exchequer (in charge of finance) took out his papers (which contained government financial programme for the coming year) to present to the Parliament. But now it came to college creative writing mean the paper themselves and not the bag or briefcase which contained these papers. C. P. Bhambhari says, #8220;The term in its present sense was used for the first time in 1773, in a satire entitled #8216;Opening the Budget#8217; directed against financial plan of Walpole who was the then British Chancellor of genetic engineering paper Exchequer. Meanings and Definition of Budget—various thinkers defined budget in their own way. According H. R. Bruce #8220;A budget is a financial statement, prepared in advance of the opening of a fiscal year, of the estimated revenues and proposed expenditures of a given organisation for the coming fiscal year.#8221; In other words #8220;Budget is a detail of estimated revenues and expenditures. It is comparative chart of revenues and expenditures and over and above this it is an authority and direction of the competent authority given for the collection of revenues.

A prominent scholar defines budget as such #8220;The budget in modern state, is a forecast and an estimate of all public receipts and expenses. It is financial plans which summarize the financial experience of the past and presents a current plan for question a specified period of time in future#8221;. Image Source: budget.par.com.pk. Thus #8220;Budget is plan of engineering research financing for the coming fiscal year. It has two parts an itemized estimate of all revenues on the one hand and essays, all expenditure on the other hand.#8221; In today#8217;s World Government is finance. According to Kautilya #8220;All undertakings depend upon finance. Hence foremost attention must be paid to the treasury#8221;. Financial administration is always at the core of modern government. It is an integral and indispensable tool of administration.

It is engineering paper outline, concerned with implementation of policies. Question. #8220;Finance is universally involved in administration as oxygen is in the atmosphere.#8221; (i) Budget ensures the financial and legal accountability of the executive (government) to the legislature. (ii) It makes sure accountability of subordinates to superiors in the administrative hierarchy. (iii) It works as an instrument of social and economic policy to serve the functions of allocation, distribution and stabilisation. Genetic Engineering Outline. (iv) It facilitates the efficient execution of the function and services of government. (v) It facilitates administrative management and coordination as it unites the various activities of the government into a single plan. Prevalent Systems of Budget. Line Item Budget: It is also known traditional and conventional Budget. Olympics. Developed in the 18th and 19th century it emphasises on the items (objects) of expenditure without highlighting its purpose and conceives budget in financial terms. It presents budget in terms of line-item classification under this system, the paper amount granted by the legislature on a specific item should be spent on that item. This system is also called Incremental Budget because the funds are allotted on an incremental base after identifying the existing base. This Performance Budget was earlier called functional budget or activity budget. It originated in U.S.A.

The Hoover Commission in U.S.A. recommended the adoption of Performance Budget in 1949. Unlike the resume legal samples line-item budgeting the performance budget lays emphasis on the purpose of expenditure rather than the expenditure itself. It presents Budget in terms of functions, programmes, activities and projects. It establishes a correlation between the physical performance or output and financial aspects. Hence it necessitates a functional classification of the budget. Like Performance Budget Programme Budget also originated in genetic engineering paper outline U.S.A.

It was introduced in 1965 by President Johnson. This system of Budget integrates the planning programming and budgeting functions it incorporates a scheme of planning in the process of budgeting. Question Dissertation. Zero based budget was also developed in paper outline U.S.A. in 1969 by Peter Phyrr. Like the samples performance budget the Zero based budget is also a rational system of budgeting. Under the system every scheme should be viewed and justified from zero (scratch) before being included in the budget. In other words ZBB involves a total re-examination of outline all schemes afresh (from base zero) instead of following the incremental approach of budgeting which begins with the estimation of the current expenditure. It is a formal process of policy review for eliminating the undesired outdated redundant and irrelevant programmes.

It embodies the self retiring government programme by providing for the termination of statutory authorisation of programmes. This is achieved by placing time limits on government programmes in the legislative enactments themselves by legislature after conducting a detailed review. Formulation of olympics Budget. There are four organs which are involved in the formulation of the engineering outline Budget: It has the overall responsibility for the formulation of the resume mediation budget and provides required leadership and direction. 2. The Administrative Ministers: They have a detailed knowledge of administrative requirements.

3. The Planning Commission: It facilitates the incorporation of plan priorities in the budget. Genetic Research Paper Outline. We can say that the Finance Ministry remains in constant touch with Planning Commission to incorporate the plan priorities in the budget. 4. The Comptroller and Auditor General: He provides the how to service letter accounting skills which are necessary for the formulation of the budget estimates. Stages in Formulation of Budget— In September-October (5-6 months before the genetic research commencement of the financial year). The Finance Ministry dispatches circulars and forms to administrative Ministry and invite their estimates of expenditure for the next financial year. The administrative ministry passes on these forms to their local field officers. In these forms the estimates and requisite information have to be filled in by local field officers. Each such form contains: (i) Actual figures of the previous year. Hunter Writing Major. (ii) Sanctioned budget estimates for the current year. (iii) Revised estimates of the current year. (iv)Proposed estimates for the next year. (v) Actuals of current year available (At the time of preparation of the estimates) (vi) Actuals for the corresponding period of the previous year. Genetic Paper. Head of the departments after receiving the estimates from drawing officers, scrutinizes and consolidates them for the entire department and submits them to how to write a customer service letter the Administrative Ministry.

The Administrative Ministry scrutinizes the estimates in light of its general policy and consolidates them for the whole ministry and submits them to the Finance Ministry. The Finance Ministry scrutinizes the estimates received from the view point of economy of expenditure and paper, availability of revenues. Its scrutiny is resume, nominal in case of standing charges and research outline, more exacting in case of new items of expenditure. If there is difference of opinion between the Administrative Ministry and Finance Ministry on the inclusion of a scheme in the budget estimates the former can submit such estimates to the Union Cabinet and the decesion of cabinet in this regard is final. After this, the Finance Ministry consolidates the budget estimates on the expenditure side. Write A Customer Letter. Based on the estimated expenditure, the Finance Ministry prepares the genetic engineering research outline estimates of revenue in consultation with the Central Board of Taxes and Central Board of Indirect Taxes.

It is also assisted by Income Tax Department and Central Excise and Customs Department in dissertations on the olympics this regard. The Finance Ministry places the consolidated budget before the cabinet. After the approval of the cabinet, the budget can be presented to paper outline the parliament. It must be mentioned that Budget is a secret document and should not be leaked before it is presented to the Parliament. Enactment of hunter college creative major Budget/Passage of Budget—Enactment of genetic engineering research paper budget means the passage of the budget by question dissertation the Parliament and ratification by the President.

The government can neither collect money nor spend money without the enactment of the genetic engineering paper budget. Stages in Enactment of Budget Stage 1—Presentation of Budget— Rule 213 of Lok Sabha provides for presentations of the budget to olympics the Lok Sabha into two or more parts and when such presentation takes place each shall be dealt with in the manner if it were the budget. Accordingly the research paper outline budget is presented into two parts Railway Budget and how to write a customer service reference letter, General Budget. The documents that are presented to the Lok Sabha along with the budget are: (i) An explanatory memorandum of the budget. (ii) An Appropriation Bill. (iii) A Finance Bill containing the taxation proposals. (iv ) Annual reports of Ministries. (v) Economic classification of the budget. General Discussion (Stage 2): The general discussion on engineering research paper, budget begins a few days after its presentation. It takes place in both houses of Parliament.

During this stage the Lok Sabha discuss the hunter college creative writing budget as a whole or on any question of principle involved therein but no motion shall be moved nor shall the budget be submitted to research paper the vote of the House. Hunter College Creative Major. The Finance Minister has the genetic general right to reply at resume the end of discussion. Voting on Demands for Grants: After the discussion on general budget is over; Lok Sabha takes up voting on demands for grants. The demands are presented ministry wise. A demand becomes grant after it is duly passed. Voting on demands for grants is the exclusive privilege of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha has no power on voting on demands for grants. This voting is confined to votable parts of the budget and the expenditure charged on the consolidated fund of India is put to the vote. It can only be discussed. General Budget has 109 demands in total in which 103 demands are for civil expenditure and 6 demands are related to genetic engineering paper defense expenditure.

The Railway Budget has 32 demands. Each demand is voted seprately by question dissertation the Lok Sabha. During this stage, the members of Parliament can discuss details of the Budget. The proposed expenditure it says that the amount of grant be reduced by specified amount. Third type is Token Cut Motion which ventilates specific grievance which is within the responsibility of the Government of India. It states that the genetic research outline amount of grant be reduced by Rs. 100. In total 26 days are allotted for the voting of demands. Essays. On the last day the speaker puts all the remaining demands to vote and dispose them whether they have been discussed by the members or not. This is known as Guillotine.

No money can be withdrawn from the consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law. An Appropriation Bill is introduced to provide the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India all respect to genetic engineering outline the estimated expenditure for a part of financial year pending the college creative major completion of the voting of the demands for grants and the enactment of the Appropriation Bill. This provision is known as #8216;Vote on Account#8217;. It is passed after the general discussion is over. Research. It is generally granted for two months for an amount equiva­lent to one sixth of the total estimation. Passage of Finance Bill: Under Rule 219 of the Lok Sabha the Finance Bill means the palestinienne Bill ordinarily introduced in each year to genetic research paper give effect to the financial proposals of the government of India for the next following financial year and includes a bill to give effect to supplementary financial proposals for any period. It is subjected to all conditions applicable to dissertations olympics a Money Bill. Unlike the Appropriation Bill the amendments can be moved in the case of Finance Bill. According to research paper Provisional Collection of Taxes Act 1931 The Finance Bill must be enacted within 75 days. It means it is must be passed by Parliament and assented to by the President within 75 days.

The Finance Act legalises the income side of the budget and completes the process of the enactment of the budget. 1. Supplementary Grant When amount is insufficient for the particular service for the year. 2. Additional Grant When a need arises for expenditure upon mediation, new services. 3. Excess Grant Contemplated in Budget when amount is spent in excess of the amount on any service. 4. Vote of Credit to meet an unexpected demand upon the resources of India. 5. Exceptional Grant For special purposes. 6. Token Grant to meet the proposed expenditure on a new service.

Execution of Budget means the implementation of Budget. Finance Ministry is the central financial agency of the Government of India. Expenditure Part—the Finance Ministry controls the expenditure of administrative ministries/departments in the following ways: (1) By approving policies and genetic, programmes in principle. Resume Mediation. (2) By approving the provisions of Budget estimates. (3) Sanctioning expenditure subject to the powers which are delegated to the spending authorities (ministers) (4) Providing financial advice through the Integrated Financial Advisor. (5) Re-appropriation of grants (transfer of funds) from one subhead to another. (6) Internal Audit System. (7) Prescribing a financial code to be followed by spending authorities. Execution of the budget on genetic engineering outline, the revenue side involves: (a) Proper Collection of Revenues. (b) Custody of the Collected Funds. (c) Distribution of Funds Stages in Collection of Revenues. (1) Devising suitable methods for tax administration and determination of on the olympics taxation procedure. (2) Assessment of tax that is preparation of a list of engineering outline persons liable to pay tax and determining the amount to be paid by them. (3) Making provisions for hearing of objections and appeals. Hunter. (4) Collection that is realisation of the amount due from the various assesses. (v) Following up and realisation of arrears that is paper outline, dealing with the defaulters. The Department of Revenue of the Finance Ministry exercises overall control and supervision over the machinery charged with the collection of taxes through the Central Board of Direct Taxes and the Central Board of exercise and Customs. The Reserve Bank of India, SBI and district treasuries (about 300) and sub-treasures (about 1200) are engaged in custody and distribution of funds.

Funds of the Government of India: The Constitution provides three kinds of funds for the Central Government of India. It is cbt reflective essays, a fund to which all receipts are credited and all payments are debited. Public Accounts of India (Act 266): All public moneys (other than those which are credited to the consolidated fund) received on behalf of the Government of India shall be credited to Public Account of India. This includes provident fund deposits, judicial deposits savings, bank deposits etc. The Constitution authorises Parliament to research paper establish Contingency Fund into which such sums are paid which may be determined by Parliament from time to time. Like Public Account it is operated by executive action. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the paper outline defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Hunter College! Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in genetic engineering research paper all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of hunter college writing legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the engineering paper outline calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the resume legal Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of engineering paper Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Write A Customer! Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and paper outline cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in cbt reflective blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. Engineering Paper! The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and resume mediation declared an genetic engineering research paper outline amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). Question Palestinienne! It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to genetic engineering, the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to resume legal samples, the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Engineering! Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is dissertations not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in genetic engineering research paper and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).

There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is reference letter hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of research paper outline events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in hunter writing the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of paper his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the hunter college creative writing major magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of genetic paper outline tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of question palestinienne favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of genetic engineering research outline Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in mediation Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. Genetic! His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and hunter major inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and genetic paper outline the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to service reference, the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. Paper Outline! When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from a customer service reference, standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in research paper outline northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in dissertations on the olympics June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for paper, that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of cbt reflective looming crisis between the Caesarians and engineering paper the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Resume! Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for genetic engineering research paper, him), at question which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the engineering research paper outline risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in mediation Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by genetic research paper the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and mediation retired to the fortified town of Mutina in paper outline Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the palestinienne dissertation republic, led his force into genetic paper, the region and moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and reference letter fled over the Alps to his political allies in genetic engineering research paper outline Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at resume legal samples such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and genetic research paper put in dissertation requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]]

In the research face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and service letter determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Genetic Engineering Paper! Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the resume mediation deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of engineering Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on resume a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in genetic engineering detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of creative writing major Roman politics. Paper! Dismissed by Antony and then by how to a customer service letter the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of genetic engineering research outline his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Essays! Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at engineering research outline this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. On The! Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in engineering Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and dissertations on the olympics Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the genetic engineering paper outline text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Essays! Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the engineering outline Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in dissertations Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in genetic engineering outline the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in write service the Balkans and culminated in research paper outline a double battle some weeks apart in October at question palestinienne dissertation Philippi in genetic engineering paper Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and resume mediation the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and genetic engineering research paper outline all of those implicated in samples the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and genetic paper outline Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and question palestinienne dissertation a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. Research Outline! [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an hunter major immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and engineering research paper outline so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to resume mediation, Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for genetic engineering research paper outline, settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in olympics Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of engineering research 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. Dissertations! He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in genetic engineering Italy. The big question in hunter college writing all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in research outline his brother's agitation.

By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on hunter creative major Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. Genetic Engineering Research Paper! After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the dissertations olympics councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to engineering outline, Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by legal moving west in paper the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and write a customer service marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. Genetic Outline! However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. Samples! When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the engineering paper fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to college creative, be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of genetic outline resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by cbt reflective blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to genetic research paper outline, act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at samples Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in genetic engineering outline the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to mediation, Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in research outline a subsequent storm. Cbt Reflective Essays! He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of paper 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of essays some 120 ships from genetic research paper, Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for dissertations on the, Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to genetic research paper, defeating Sextus. Samples! Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the engineering research paper outline northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and resume mediation took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on genetic paper outline 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the legal samples rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the genetic outline other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Cbt Reflective! Finding himself in control of engineering outline twenty-two legions in legal Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in paper 35-33 BC, against dissertations on the the tribes of Illyricum. Engineering! But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to creative writing major, Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of paper outline Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of dissertation Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. Genetic Engineering Outline! The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of how to a customer power and influence, especially among his troops. Engineering Outline! Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and dissertation his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. Engineering Research Outline! It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in dissertations the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. Engineering Research! First Italy and dissertations olympics then the research outline western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in how to letter his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to genetic engineering research paper, be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on hunter writing major the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to research outline, get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in resume a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. Research Outline! A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of resume samples romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the engineering paper start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. How To Write Service Reference Letter! For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the paper future, for himself and for on the olympics, Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to engineering research, Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from legal samples, Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for genetic engineering paper, ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the write a customer service reference letter consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in research paper outline principle, if not in practice, to embrace the mediation entire empire and genetic paper all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in resume complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is genetic research political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. How To Write A Customer Reference! His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to genetic engineering outline, Rome in palestinienne August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of genetic engineering research paper 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Palestinienne Dissertation! Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to genetic engineering outline, appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Write A Customer Service! This situation too would require remedying. Genetic Paper! These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the resume samples First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of genetic engineering research paper those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of essays reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and genetic engineering paper outline Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over samples, his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for genetic engineering research paper, imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in write the form of the paper extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to legal samples, appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the genetic outline lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. Dissertations On The Olympics! By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out engineering research outline of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the resume conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. Engineering! The outline of the how to write a customer Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to engineering paper outline, take it up on two further occasions in the rest of college his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. Genetic Engineering Research Paper! It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Resume Mediation! Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the paper governor on hunter creative the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by paper outline virtue of this grant of how to service reference imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in engineering research paper outline the affairs of any province in the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to college writing, retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for genetic paper, purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for legal samples, five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of genetic engineering paper outline a tribune of the essays people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of genetic engineering paper domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of question palestinienne 27 and genetic 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the mediation settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for engineering research paper, the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the cbt reflective essays senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to genetic engineering, oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is resume mediation unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. Genetic Paper! When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. Question Palestinienne Dissertation! It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of genetic engineering research outline a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of palestinienne dissertation authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to genetic paper, anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the resume extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Engineering Paper Outline! Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for question palestinienne, office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the genetic engineering research paper outline Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for essays, himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. Genetic Engineering! That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is college creative entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is genetic paper outline what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and essays genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of engineering paper favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. Cbt Reflective! The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to research, Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. A Customer Service Reference Letter! By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Genetic Engineering Research Paper Outline! Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. Dissertations! He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of genetic research Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. Palestinienne! His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at engineering his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the cbt reflective senate had Octavius granted the engineering paper right to stand for writing, the consulship ten years in genetic engineering outline advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. How To Service Reference Letter! Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in genetic research paper outline Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in resume the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and engineering outline Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and resume no friend of engineering research paper outline Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Cbt Reflective Essays! Aside from his marriage to engineering paper outline, Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). Resume Legal Samples! [[40]] By virtue of these powers and engineering paper outline privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is essays added when the genetic research outline ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and essays Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of genetic engineering eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Question Palestinienne Dissertation! Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the engineering research paper outline adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of palestinienne dissertation them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and outline Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and dissertations olympics Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. Research! [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to question dissertation, Tiberius the paper outline following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in question the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Outline! Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and a customer service 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in genetic engineering paper Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to how to, be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in engineering paper outline Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of resume mediation dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to genetic engineering, avoid notions of cbt reflective regency or paired succcession and see here an genetic engineering research paper outline attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of question princes from genetic research, which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the question favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. Outline! The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only how to a customer a teenager at genetic engineering research paper the time and the move may have been intended only to resume samples, secure his prominence in future succession plans. Engineering Paper! Germanicus , twenty years old at resume the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from genetic engineering research paper, clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. Mediation! [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and genetic research paper outline carried in its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. How To A Customer! In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of engineering research paper outline various noblemen and resume equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. Genetic Research Paper! She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and hunter college major seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of genetic Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the on the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the paper outline succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only palestinienne dissertation perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the genetic engineering outline internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by resume the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of outline this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on hunter the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the engineering paper outline Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in write reference letter AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the engineering paper citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for write service reference, the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. Paper Outline! He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and dissertations Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in genetic paper the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Cbt Reflective Essays! Caesar and the Parthians on genetic engineering research an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the cbt reflective frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the genetic outline process of keeping them in the vicinity of the hunter frontiers. Engineering Research Paper Outline! Although Augustus appears to some scholars to legal, have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to research paper, what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and essays local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the genetic engineering research Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. College Creative Writing! In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to genetic paper, a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only hunter college major been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the genetic engineering claim on resume a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and genetic research paper outline promptly disappears from legal, our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of paper Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. Dissertations Olympics! C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on research outline its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Hunter Creative Writing! Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and outline his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of how to write a customer these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of genetic research paper republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the mediation new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and engineering research paper triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the resume army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the research outline south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in dissertation North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of genetic engineering research paper Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into cbt reflective, the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in engineering research outline AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the resume public ones by a factor of almost two, and genetic research that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in question palestinienne dissertation service fell under the emperor's command. Engineering! Further, the dissertation Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into research paper, question any notions of hunter writing joint rule by senate and genetic research princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is fair to mediation, say that the engineering research provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by resume Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on genetic research paper local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to resume mediation, rotate annually. The men varied in rank from genetic research paper outline, senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and essays more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on engineering research a par with the rapacious activities of the writing major likes of Caesar or Sulla under the genetic engineering paper outline Republic. Augustus, by virtue of resume samples proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . Outline! [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is cbt reflective illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. Genetic Research Paper! In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is essays a piece of engineering research outline sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to hunter college creative, have children. Genetic Paper Outline! Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of how to reference his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by paper outline adultery and creative major infidelities of engineering outline all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to olympics, maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of engineering research paper Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of cbt reflective Rome. He probably had an research outline eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at resume samples Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Outline! Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of dissertations on the life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. Engineering Paper! This great flowering of palestinienne dissertation literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in engineering politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of resume legal samples a bon vivant , he actively supported the genetic engineering research careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the dissertations careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to engineering research paper outline, express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the resume patrons and genetic writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and mediation Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at genetic engineering paper outline Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the write service Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the genetic engineering paper original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in samples Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and research paper reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out resume legal very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and genetic engineering research outline the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the on the Roman state into genetic research outline, a monarchy in these years. How To Write A Customer Service Reference! Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. Genetic Engineering Research Paper Outline! All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. Cbt Reflective Essays! He directed the future of the engineering paper empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of essays 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in engineering the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and resume Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Engineering Paper Outline! Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and question the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in engineering paper outline the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and college Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and research paper outline Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and cbt reflective essays the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in engineering outline Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Question Palestinienne! Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in genetic paper Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and resume his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in genetic research J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in on the Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of genetic research outline Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and hunter college creative writing some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Genetic Engineering Research Paper! Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only resume mediation treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of engineering outline Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). Hunter! There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in genetic engineering Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the hunter writing major Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in engineering research paper outline the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in samples the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for genetic outline, Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in mediation a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Genetic Engineering Research Paper! Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . On The Olympics! 61-62. Suet.

Caes . Engineering Research Outline! 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of resume Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the engineering paper only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Hunter Creative Major! Aug . 7-12. Genetic Engineering Research Paper Outline! Aftermath of murder: App. B. Olympics! Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in research early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and how to write a customer reference letter rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to genetic engineering research, the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the cbt reflective essays liberty of the paper republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in mediation the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . Genetic Research Outline! 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by on the claiming the genetic engineering outline money is tied up in essays litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in engineering outline letters to Atticus dated 11 and on the 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in genetic research outline Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Dissertations On The Olympics! Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Genetic Research Paper! Civ . Resume! 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the engineering outline Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Resume Mediation! Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to engineering research outline, Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from cbt reflective essays, Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to genetic, the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for resume, the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . Engineering Paper! 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. Hunter College Creative Writing Major! B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . Research! 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. Question! The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . Genetic Research Paper! 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. On The! Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Genetic Engineering Paper Outline! Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in on the Cicero's murder. Genetic Engineering Paper! When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for samples, some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on research Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by college writing major Appian ( B. Engineering Research Outline! Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in on the arguing forcefully that the genetic outline proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of on the olympics Philippi: App. B. Civ . Genetic Engineering Research! 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. Cbt Reflective! B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. Genetic Engineering Paper! B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for dissertations olympics, the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at engineering research outline Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by hunter Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Engineering Paper Outline! Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. Write Reference Letter! B. Genetic Engineering Research Paper Outline! Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of cbt reflective essays Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and paper outline Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Dissertations Olympics! Civ. Genetic Engineering Research Outline! 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of resume mediation Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . Genetic Engineering Research! 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of samples water separated the two platforms. Engineering Research Outline! Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . Palestinienne Dissertation! In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the genetic engineering research paper Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and dissertations on the olympics renewal of genetic paper outline triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the resume mediation end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the engineering research paper retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in question dissertation Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. Genetic Research Outline! In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the dissertations observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. Engineering Paper! 29.

On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Write Letter! Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). Research! These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. Resume Legal! B. Civ . Paper Outline! 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in question dissertation saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Paper Outline! Burning of the records: App. B. Essays! Civ . Engineering! 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of olympics it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of research paper outline Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to essays, legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and research outline privileges had been voted to generals in question dissertation recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Genetic Engineering Research Paper Outline! Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the hunter creative major content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on research outline the expiration of the resume mediation triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in outline the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Dissertations On The Olympics! Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the engineering research oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . Dissertations Olympics! 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the genetic engineering outline oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the question dissertation oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to genetic outline, Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Service! Date of the fall of engineering research Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . Resume Mediation! 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into outline, a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and mediation Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in engineering research outline the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in how to a customer service letter complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the research paper outline Temple of how to Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at paper peace (though Dio is question quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about genetic research outline, it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and service letter effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is engineering research done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Resume! Aug . Engineering Paper! 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and on the olympics careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Genetic Research Outline! Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. Resume Mediation! As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the research paper slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to creative, the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . Engineering Outline! 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over question dissertation, legal status of research paper outline Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to legal, have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for genetic engineering outline, the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Essays! Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Genetic Engineering Paper Outline! 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Hunter College Creative Writing Major! Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of genetic engineering research 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . A Customer Service Reference! 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from engineering paper outline, 43-41 BC; and hunter college creative writing major then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at research outline triumph: Suet. Palestinienne Dissertation! Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1. Death and paper burial of question palestinienne Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in engineering paper his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is cbt reflective essays entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. Genetic Engineering Research Paper! cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Resume Legal! Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Genetic Engineering Research! Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . Hunter Writing Major! 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in engineering Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the resume regent would step down when required to genetic research outline, do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and a customer service reference not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to genetic paper, the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of essays attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of genetic research paper that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the service reference letter second century and genetic engineering research paper beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. How To Write A Customer Reference! See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of genetic research paper outline Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the how to service letter Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of genetic paper outline Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. Resume Legal! 44. Paper! On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the hunter creative writing major Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the research paper outline bigger question of palestinienne frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the outline Nile, into question, which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by engineering research the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into how to a customer service reference, his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. Paper! He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to hunter, the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the genetic outline successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the question palestinienne imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only engineering research Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of question dissertation gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the engineering paper empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Legal! Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. Genetic Research Paper Outline! (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. Essays! pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. Outline! pref. Resume Mediation! - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Genetic Research Paper Outline! Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Hunter College Creative Writing Major! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. Genetic Research! 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Cbt Reflective! Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of genetic paper Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of palestinienne Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the paper standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . How To Write Service Reference! On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by genetic engineering outline social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the reference still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in engineering research Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . Question Palestinienne Dissertation! 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Paper Outline! Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in how to letter Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. Genetic Engineering Paper Outline! For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the write a customer letter literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Engineering Outline! Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in resume legal samples AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Genetic Engineering! Aug . Question! 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Paper Outline! Aug . 101.4. ). Question! For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the paper outline header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the write a customer letter DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below. Click on the appropriate part of the map below to access large area maps.

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Descriptive Essays/The Sport of Boxing term paper 5463. Boxing is often referred to engineering paper outline, as the Manly Art of Self Defense. It is a very. respectable sport that has a rough side to it. Boxing takes place in palestinienne dissertation, a sixteen to twenty-four foot square padded area called a. ring. A boxing match (referred to as a bout) is usually a fast , violent show of genetic engineering outline, strength, stamina, and cbt reflective essays skill. The boxers throw powerful punches as each tries to win the engineering outline bout by. means of points, knocking his opponent unconscious, or forcing him to give up the fight.

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wears padded gloves. His gloves soften his punches and protect his hands as well as his. opponent from injury. The gloves weigh eight or ten ounces. Boxers wear trunks and. light weight shoes that lace just above the ankle.

A mouthpiece of hard rubber protects. the teeth, and a plastic cup protects the genetic research paper sex organs. Both amateur and professionals wear. a protective leather helmet when training. Hunter Major? Amateur fighters may wear a helmet in actual.

competition, though professionals do not. The helmet covers the back and sides of the. Time periods- Time periods of a boxing match are referred to engineering paper outline, as rounds. Each round. lasts two or three minutes in amateur bouts. Rounds in major professional bouts last. three minutes. In all matches there is a one minute rest period between rounds.

A professional bout may be scheduled for four to fifteen rounds . Write Letter? Most professional. championships are scheduled for engineering outline twelve or fifteen rounds. Amateur fights are three to six. rounds. All amateur championships are scheduled for three rounds. Fight Officials- During a round, the resume referee is the only person in the ring besides the. boxers. He sees that the fighters obey the rules.

The referee warns a boxer that disobeys. a rule. He may disqualify a fighter for committing a serious violation or too many. Two or three judges sit along ringside and score most fights. However, amateur. championship fights require two judges. The time keeper keeps track of time and sounds. a bell to signal the beginning and end of each round.

An official ring physician is present. at every bout to provide medical treatment if needed. The physician then advises the. referee how serious an engineering paper outline injured fighters condition may be. Scoring a Fight- A boxer wins a fight by (1) a knockout, (2) a technical knockout, or. (3) a decision.

Sometimes, a professional bout may end in a draw, with neither fighter. declared the winner. Amateur fights cannot win in a draw. Olympics? In a close bout, the amateur. who showed better style or committed fewer violations may be awarded the research outline winner.

A knockout , or KO, occurs when a boxer is knocked down and resume mediation does not get back on. his feet within ten seconds, as counted by the referee. If a round ends while a fighter is. down, but before the ten second has passed the fighter is saved by the bell. He then can. rest until the beginning of the next round. A technical knockout, or TKO, occurs when a boxer is declared to be physically. unable to continue fighting.

The judgment may be made by the referee, the genetic engineering outline official ring. physician, the fighter himself , or the fighter's corner. A decision results when two boxers fight the scheduled number of rounds without a. knockout or a technical knockout. In most parts of the United States, the referee and two. ringside judges then decide the winner or, in the case of a professional bout, declare the.

fight a draw. A decision may be made unanimous, with all three officials voting for that. winner. A decision may be split with victory going to the boxer judged the winner by two. out of the three officials. In Olympic competition, the referee has no vote, and dissertations on the olympics five. judges decide the winner. A decision is based on either the round or point system. Some states in the United. States use the point system for professional bouts. In this system, the referee and the.

judges decide individually after every round which fighter won that round or whether it. was even. At the end of the research bout, each official votes for the fighter he has awarded the. most rounds. States that do not use the round system for decisions in cbt reflective, professional fights. use some form of the point system. In a point system, the referee and outline the judges. separately award each fighter a number of points after every round based on his.

performance. Samples? At the end of the fight, each official adds up all the points he has given to. each boxer. The boxer , scored the winner by genetic engineering outline two of the officials, wins the bout. Some. states use a five-point or ten-point system. In this system, each official gives the boxer.

he considers to be the winner of a round five or ten points and the loser fewer points. If. an official decides the round is a draw, each boxer gets five or ten points. All decisions in the United States and international amateur fights are based on the. twenty-point-must system. Each official awards the winner of a round twenty points. Hunter College Writing? The. loser receives nineteen points or fewer, depending on how the officials judged his. performance.

If the round is judged even, each receives twenty points. Fight Rules- A boxer may not hit below the belt or in the back of the head, nor may. he strike an opponent who is down, even to one knee. Research Paper? Such actions are called fouls. Other fouls include kicking, tripping, wrestling, holding, hitting with the forearms or the. inside of the dissertations olympics glove, butting with the head, or using the elbows. A boxer who commits a.

foul is warned by paper outline the referee and resume mediation loses points. Genetic Paper Outline? If a boxer commits too many fouls, he. may be disqualified. After a fighter is college major knocked down, his opponent must immediately go to genetic paper, the farthest. neutral corner, which is one of the two corners not occupied by either boxer between. rounds. The referee then begins the essays count.

If the fallen boxer rises, the count is ended. In amateur and some professional bouts, however, a fallen boxer must take a mandatory. eight count. Under this rule, fighting may not resume after a knockdown until the referee. has counted to eight, even if the fallen boxer rises immediately. If a boxer in an amateur. fight is knocked down three times in one round, his opponent wins the genetic match on a TKO. This rule also applies to all professional bouts except championship matches.

Boxing Skills- every boxer has his own style, but overall they use the same basic. techniques. In the ring, a boxer adopts a basic stance that helps him to move quickly and. effortlessly. A right-handed boxer keeps his left side toward his opponent and stands. with his feet about shoulder width apart.

The boxer holds his left fist a short distance in. front of the left shoulder and his right fist just to essays, the right of the chin. The boxer keeps. his elbows close to his body to engineering research, protect his ribs. Many left-handed boxers adopt this same. stance, though some reverse it. The basis stance puts a boxer in the best position to avoid. or block the dissertations on the punches of his opponent and to throw effective blows in return. To create openings for his punches, a boxer uses various feints and combinations. Genetic Engineering Paper Outline? A.

feint is a fake punch. Resume Mediation? For example, a boxer may make a feint with his left hand and then. deliver an actual blow with his right hand. A combination consists of two or more. lightening-fast punches in a row, such as a left, a right, and then a followed up left. Good boxers keep in paper outline, top physical condition and spend many hours practicing boxing.

skills. They do much roadwork. Legal? They do things like running and jogging to develop. endurance, and skip rope to improve footwork. They also practice their punching ability. on punching bags. When training for a bout, boxers practice under fight conditions by.

boxing with sparring partners. In the engineering paper outline United States, Many Schools, boys clubs and a customer reference letter camps, and various branches of. the armed services offer boxing as a sports program. Most of this competition is. conducted under regulations set by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU). The AAU conducts amateur boxing championships every year. Genetic Research Outline? It cooperates with the. Air Force, Army, Navy, and question Marine Corps in genetic engineering outline, establishing interservice championships. The AAU also supervises the selection of the United States boxers for hunter college writing major the Olympic. Games and other international events.

It is a Member of the Association Internationale. de Boxe Amateur (AIBA). The annual Golden Gloves tournament is probably the research paper outline most famous amateur boxing. event in dissertation, the United States. A newspaper, the New York Daily News, sponsored the first. Golden Gloves competition in 1927. Genetic Research Paper Outline? The nationwide tournament is approved by the.

AAU and how to write service operates under the organization's rules. A series of local and regional. elimination bouts lead to genetic engineering research paper, the final championship matches. Financing- Professional boxers fight for hunter college creative major money in bouts arranged by promoters. A. promoter may be an individual or an entire corporation. The promoter rents an genetic research paper arena or. stadium, decides on resume the amount to be paid to each boxer, sells tickets and makes all other. needed arrangements. the engineering research paper outline promoter may be able to sell television rites, to make video or. motion picture deals, and radio rites for question palestinienne an important bout. The promoter schedules several matches for the same evening.

The main event. features the research paper two top boxers. Many preliminary bouts between less important or known. boxers take place before the main event. Most preliminary bouts are scheduled for write reference letter four. Every professional boxer must have a manager to handle all business affairs. The.

manager makes agreements with promoters for genetic paper outline the bouts, hires the fighter's paid help. and employees, and sets up a training camp for writing major the boxer. He may get as much as a third. of his fighter's prize money. A boxer's employees include a trainer and one or two. seconds. A trainer drills the genetic outline fighter in cbt reflective, boxing techniques and gives strategy during the. bouts. The seconds assist the trainer. Promoters usually pay less experienced boxers a flat out fee or pay with no added. extras from ticket sales or pay-per-vue appearances before the main event.

Well-known. fighters usually receive a percentage of the research gate of usually known as the ticket receipts. They also share in profits from the sale of any entertainment rights. Regulations- In the United States, state and local boxing commissions regulate. professional boxing.

Most of how to write service letter, these commissions belong to the World Boxing. Association (WBA), some to the World Boxing Council (WBC), and others to both. The. WBA and WBC are international organizations that recommend rules to their members. Each organization names its own list of world champions.

The two lists often differ, both the WBA and WBC allow a boxer to hold only one championship at a time. Paper? The. Canadian Boxing Federation supervises it's professional boxing in dissertation, Canada. Ancient Times-Boxing is one of the outline oldest known sports. Samples? Stone carvings indicate that the.

Sumerians, who lived in genetic engineering paper outline, what is hunter creative writing major now Iraq, boxed at genetic outline least 5,000 years ago. The sport. probably spread from the Sumerians to people throughout the world. Boxing was a brutal spectacle in ancient Greece. Two men (usually young men) would sit on flat stones, face to face, with their fist wrapped in thongs ( which were strips. of leather which offered little or no protection). At a signal, they began to hit each other. until one of cbt reflective, them fell to the ground unconscious. The other man then continued to beat. his opponent until he died.

Later, the thongs were fitted with metal spikes so that the. fights ended quicker. The Romans also had their type of brutal matches. On their hands ands forearms, the. fighters wore cestuses, which consisted of leather straps plated with metal. The fighters. were allowed to stand and move around a small area. The sport became more savage. with time. They then forbid the use of cestuses. In the first century B.C., they prohibited.

Archie Moore, Sugar Ray Robinson, and genetic research paper Rocky Marciano were three of the greatest. fighters of the resume mediation 1950's. Archie Moore held the engineering paper Light Heavyweight title from 1952 to 1961. Sugar Ray Robinson was the Welterweight Champion from question palestinienne dissertation, 1946 to 1951 and then went. on to win the Middleweight crown five times. Rocky Marciano was the Heavyweight. Champion from 1952-1956 and won all his forty-nine professional fights. Though in the 1950'2 attendance at boxing matches declined with the rise of. television. Many fans preferred to watch major fights on television at home rather than.

attend other fights in person. As a result, small boxing clubs, where fighters got there. start, went out of business. The public's interest decreased to the point where only some. championship bouts were televised. The Future of Boxing. Evander Holyfield is now the genetic engineering research paper outline reining Heavyweight Champion.

He was awarded his. title in November, 1996 by dissertation knocking out genetic research paper, Mike Tyson in the ninth round at the MGM. Grand Hotel In Las Vegas , Nevada. They are scheduled to fight a rematch in mediation, June, 1997. Boxing is truly one of the genetic engineering research paper last real man's sports.

I know my family couldn't do without. Tuesday Night Fight Night on USA. 1. Benton, William, Boxing, Compton's Encyclopedia and Fact Index.pp. 283-288. 2. Katz,Michael, Boxing, Grolier Encyclopedia, 1995 ed. 3. Loubet,Nat. Boxing, International Encyclopedia. p. Question Palestinienne? 1994-1999, 1981 ed. 4. Bowman, John, Boxing,The New Book Of Knowledge, pp351-354, 1996 ed. 5.Sullivan, George, Boxing,The World Book Encyclopedia, pp.436-443, 1984 ed.

Boxing Regulations. Genetic Paper Outline? pp. 1-5. Amateur Boxing. pp. 5-6. Professional Boxing. pp. 6-7. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.

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